What period was Baroque music?
What did the baroque orchestra consist of?
Mainly strings, would add other instruments as needed
What is unity of mood? And what period did it occur during?

Composers have a mood in mind for the piece

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Ex. joyful


What was melody and rhythm like during the baroque period?
Lots of regularity
What is embellishment? And what period was it found in?

First time you play it the way that the composer wrote it.

Second time you add your own unique twists

Found in baroque

What was tonality like in the baroque period?
Composers started using major and minor keys.
What was the texture mainly like in the baroque period?
Polyphonic and Homophonic
What was the basso continuo? And when was it used?
Accompaniment style written in bass line. Used in baroque period.
What instrument played the basso continuo?
harpsichord or basson
What was the basso continuo written in?
Figured bass
What was the concerto grosso? What time period?
Written for baroque orchestra. Tutti and soloists.
How many mvmts and what were the tempo’s in a concerto grosso??
Usually 3. (first fast: vigorous and determined, second slow: lyrical and intimate, third fast: lively/carefree, dancelike)
What is the main melodic theme in a fugue called?
The subject
Who was the master of the fugue?
JS Bach
What time period were fugues very important in?
What key is the subject of a fugue written in? What texture is a fugue presented in?
It is written in the tonic key, presented monophonically
What follows the subject in a fugue?
The answer
What is the answer of a fugue transposed to?
The dominant or 5th degree of a key
How many types of answers are there in a fugue?
There are 2!
What are countersubjects?
They’re in fugues. Considered this if they keep appearing with other presentations of the subject.
What is the episode part of a fugue?
Parts of the fugue where the subject isn’t present or it is present but not fully.
What are voices in a fugue?
Different melodic lines that imitate the subject
How many voices does a fugue usually encompass?
3, 4, or 5 voices
What is stretto in a fugue?
It is where a subject is imitated before it is completed, one voice tries to catch the other.
What is pedal point?
In a fugue where a single tone is held while other voices produce a series of changing harmonies against it.
What is augmentation?
Where original time values are lengthened. fugue
What is diminution?
Where the subject appears with shortened time values. fugue
What is retrograde?
Where the subject is presented beginning with the last note of the subject and proceeding backward to the first.
Where did opera begin and what group began opera?
In Italy by the Camerata
What was a major development in secular vocal music during the baroque period known as?
Sample of all music/themes in opera played at the beginning?
Line song by soloist, tries to imitate speech, used to progress the plot?
Most interesting part of the plot, big emotional solo in opera?
Group of soloists singing together in an opera?
It is composed of many voices, it is used to comment on the action of the story
Gives lines to those who forget them
Plays the music for the opera
During the baroque period, what were operas based on?
Very serious, based largely on Greek mythology!
What is the earliest opera that has been preserved?
Monteverdi, what is he known for?
Known for 12 operas, 3 survive today
What was Monteverdi’s first opera?
Orfeo (story of orpheus who was a great Greek musician)
Who was the librettist/dramatist?
Wrote the libretto (plot and text) that will be sung during the opera
Makes the actual music sung in opera
Men castrated before puberty, soprano voice range but maintained male power, highest paid in the opera
Finish aria, go back to the beginning and sing again. This left room for embellishment, ABA
Da Capo Aria
Who was considered the greatest British composer ever? Buried under the organ at Westminster Abbey?
Henry Purcell
Who wrote Dito Amaus?
Henry Purcell
A form of accompianment that consists of one melodic line that is repeated over and over again
Ground Bass/Basso Ostinato
An instrumental work that is usually a solo instrument or a few instruments with accompianment. It has movments
Usually 3 melodic lines and basso continuo
Trio Sonata
Sonatas for the Church
Sonata da chiesa
Sonatas for regular performances or functions
Sonata de camera
From Venice, Italy. Taught at a girls school called Pieta. Most of his pieces were written for students. Violin Virtuoso
Antonio Vivaldi
A marked contrast between soft and loud, what kind of dynamics were these known as?
Terrace dynamics, found in baroque music
One of the greatest composers of the baroque period, was the organist and musical director at St. Thomas church in Leipzig
J.S. Bach
Great organist and improvisor, very prominant in the baroque period
J.S. Bach
Who wrote baroque music in every style except for the opera?
J.S. Bach
What type of music was found in the baroque period that involves dance themes but wasn’t actually written for dancing? It has multiple mvmts, including a French Overture that has 2 parts. Includes dotted rhythms
What baroque composer was known for writing a lot of church music, mainly cantatas and chorales?
J.S. Bach
A type of church music including biblical text that included different vocalists, chorus, organ, or smaller orchestras, and that were longer works?
What type of church music begins on a big chorus and ends on a big chorus?
German composer who was a great organist that composed operas in Italy, spent many years in England and wrote many oratorios?
A piece of music written based off of a biblical text that closely resembles an opera but has no costumes, acting, etc. Usually set to a narrative text?
What composer was considered the master of oratorios?
What time period did the Classical Period of music occur?
What composers sons were instrumental in transitioning between the baroque and classical periods?
J.S. Bach’s sons
What type of music is characterized by change of mood/contrast of mood?
This type of music has a wide variety of rhythms
What texture was classical music mainly?
What accompianment style was eventually abandoned in the classical period?
Basso Continuo
This period had gradual crescendos and gradual decresendos
What was the main type of accompianment in the classical period?
The forte piano, predecessor to the grand piano
What did the classical orchestra consist of??

Strings (1st, 2nd violins, violas, cellos, double basses)

Woodwinds (2 flute, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons)

Brass: (2 french horns, 2 trumpets)

Percussion (2 timpani)

A type of musical composition very important in the classical period. A 4 part work that is usually 30 minutes to an hour in duration?
The symphony
What form is the first movement of a symphony in and what tempo is it usually at?
Sonata form, allegro
What are the different parts of sonata form?

The exposition (first theme, transition, second theme closing, repeat)

The development

The recapitulation (first theme, transition, second theme, closing)

The coda (in tonic key)

What is a common second movment of a symphony, and what tempo is it at?
Theme and variations, adagio/andante
What is a common third movement of a symphony, and what is it’s tempo?
Dance movement, minuet ; trio/scherzo
What is the fourth movement in a symphony known as and what tempo is it usually played at?
A basic musical idea in which the theme is repeated over and over but is changed each time?
Theme and variations
Written in triple meter, usually moderate tempo, ABA form, originated as a dance but its now more commonly used as the 3rd part of a symphony!

A tuneful main theme which returns several times in alternation with other themes ex. ABABA, ABACABA, etc.

Always starts and ends on the same melody

A type of composition consisting of 3 movements, very important in classical music. Written for solo instrumentalist and orchestra. First mvmt is in double sonata form.
End of orchestra part is marked with a ____ before a cadenza?
When a soloist performs a solo unaccompanied at the end of a concerto?
Has a double exposition, orchestra plays the first one and then the soloist comes in and plays the second one.
A lot more simple than concertos, played mainly for performers enjoyment
Chamber music
Most popular instruments for chamber music?
String quartet; 2 violins, 1 viola, 1 cello
What composer started as a choir boy and taught himself to compose?
What composer got the attention of The Duke of Esterhazy and eventually worked for him as a musical servant?
What composer was the master of the theme?
How many symphonies did haydn compose?
What composer died before his 36th birthday of rheumatic fever?
W.A. Mozart
Which composer was a child prodigy at keyboard and was composing before age 8?
W.A. Mozart
Which composer was truly the first freelance composer and gave benefit concerts?
W.A. Mozart
Which composer wrote Don Giovani, marriage of Fiagro, Magic flute?
W.A. Mozart
What were operas like in the classical period?
They transitioned into more of a comedic role
Which composer drove music into the Romantic period?
Which composer learned from both Mozart and Haydn?
Which composer was deaf and conducted and composed even after losing his hearing?
How many symphonies did Beethoven compose and which ones are his most famous?
9; 3/5/9