Complete Cadence
Sound resolves itself, it returns to whole notes, returns home.
Incomplete cadence
Sound is not resolved
Every song is made of a
Each melody is broken into
Phrases move by ___ or ____
Steps or leaps
What is a step?
A to B, B to C, C to D, etc.
What is a leap?
A to C, C to E, etc.
What is a climax in music?
The highest part of the music, loudest point, most interesting part of the phrase.
What is the tonic note?
It is the home note. Key of C (tonic note = C)
Melodies make up _____.
What is a theme?
When composers take the melody and base the rest of the piece off of this theme.
Way chords are constructed and the way they follow each other is known as…
Harmonic construction is when you add..
How many notes are in a chord and what are these known as?
3 and a triad (1,3,5)
What are the two categories chords can fall into?
Cosonance & Dissonance
What is a consonance?
When the chord sounds restful and stable
What is dissonance?
Create unstable sound, drives music
Where melody and harmony comes together is known as
What are the 3 types of texture in classical music?
Monophonic, polyphonic, and homophonic
One instrument or multiple in unison, one note at a time
Monophonic texture
2 or more independent lines playing different melodies at the same time is known as
Polyphonic texture
Monophonic line with chords
Homophonic texture
What is imitation and in which texture is this found?
Imitation is like a canon. One melody starts and the same melody starts a bar or 2 later. Found in polyphonic texture.
What are the 2 basic forms in music?
Ternary form and binary form.



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Chords and verses

Ternary form

A, B


A and B are related


Still gives complete feeling

Binary Form
What are the 3 basic forms that a composer uses when composing?
Repitition, contrast, and variation
Playing something over and over is known as:
Introducing completely new material is known as:
First time plain melody, second time melody and chords, third something else, etc.
What is the time period of medival music?
What were the 3 classes of people in the medival times?
Peasant, nobility, clergy
Who were the most important people in music during the medival times?
What was the main form of music during the medival ages?
Gregorian chant
What is the texture of Gregorian chant?
Monophonic, no real rhythm, passed on through oral tradition.
What language is Gregorian Chant in?
Sacred latin.
What are the two types of mass music?
Ordinary (sung at every service) and Proper (seasonal, changes)
Who was one of the most famous composers during the medival ages?
Hildegard. She was a nun in the convent and advised The Pope. Created liturgical dramas.
What was the date of the introduction of secular music?
Who were troubadors/traveres?
Nobleman who sang secular songs about love
What was the music of troubadors like?
Monophonic, had a drone, about love
What is an estampie?
A medival dance tune.
What was the texture of an estampie?
Mostly monophonic, musicians would make up melody on the spot, accompanied with percussion and drones
Who were minstrels?
Performed secular music, lower than peasants in standing
Who was Leonin?
First choirmaster of Notre Dame. Began polyphonic music into sacred music.
What is an organum?
Polyphonic chant, rhythmic modes were introduced. A lot of rhythms represented the trinity
Who was Perotin?
Next choirmaster of notre dame. Composed polyphonic music for 3/4/5 voices. Wrote more complex music.
Where was the music center once polyphonic music came about?
What does Ars Antigua mean?
Ancient Art
When was the transition into the Ars Nova?
1300, New Art
Who was the originator of the Ars Nova?
Guillaume Machaunt
What did Guillaume Machaunt introduce in terms of rhythm?
With the introduction of syncopation and polyphony, what type of music did we see a transition into?
Renaissance music.
When did Renissance music begin?
Which was more important during the Renaissance? Vocal music or instrumental?
Trying to create music that matches the text is known as..
Word painting
What was the new composition category in sacred music known as during the Renissance?
A motet.
What was a motet?
Where a composer would take a part of a mass chant and compose music off of it.
What composer was famous for his motets during the Renissance?
What musical style was seen commonly in motets?
What was the church going through during the Renissance that brought many changes including changes to music? And what council did it lead to?
Counter-Reformation, Council of Trent
What was decided at the Council of Trent?
The church wanted songs that enhanced worship and that weren’t necessarily pleasing to the ears. They tried to move away from polyphonic music.
Who was Palestrina?
Composer during Renissance that met at middle ground on music with the church. Italian. Wrote the Kyrie from Pope Marcellus Mass.
Polyphonic Music that originated during the Renaissance about love, very popular in England
Who was a famous composer of Madrigals?
Thomas Welkes
Shawm was a predecessor of what instrument?
Recorders were the predecessors of what instruments?
Sackbut’s were predecessors of what instruments?
Lutes were predecessors of what instruements?
Known for composing and playing songs on the Lute. Wrote “Flow My Tears”
John Dowland
German Composer who wrote instrumental music. Famous for terpsichore?
What was terpsichore?
Music used for dancing, originated in Renaissance. Collection of over 300 dance tunes for instrumental ensemble.