Pope Gregory
-Medieval period
-Gregorian chant
Sung during two types of services, the office and the mass
-The mass: propers (texts specific for the day), ordinary (texts used for every mass)
-The office: hymns (syllabic chants)
Hildegard of Bingen
-Medieval period
-Gregorian chant (monophonic)
-First composer we have information about and first women
-O Successores
-Medieval period
-Puis qu’en oubli sui de vous
-Rondeau (one of the main poetic forms in 14th and 15th century)
-Agnus Dei
-Liturgy/liturgical music (Specific kind of secular music, done within the church worship setting
-1st mass ordinary that is polyphonic
-Part of the mass ordinary
-Trinity (three parts)
Josquin Desprez
– Martin Luther called Desprez the prince of music
-Ave Mariaj
-Motet (sacred polyphony choral that is not apart of the mass ordinary)
-Showed that polyphony could still be understood (Kyrie)
-a cappella, 6 voices
Thomas Tallis
-If Ye Love Me, Keep My Commandments

-Clear, syllabic text-setting

Thomas Weelkes
– As Vesta Was Descending

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-Comes from The Triumphes of Oriana
-Queen Elizabeth I (Oriana)

-Madrigal (secular vocal pieces designed for soloist using word paintings)
-Word painting

John Dowland
-Flow My Tears
-Lute song
Michael Praetorius
-Renaissance instrumental music
-Passamezzo & Galliard from Terpsichore

-Passamezzo: duple meter
-Galliard: triple meter

-Paired courtly dances

-Early Baroque (Opera)
-Tu Se Morta
-Recitative with a large chorus
-Expressive dissonance
-Alessandro Striggio

Librettist (person who writes the text for an opera) for Tu Se Morta

Orpheus/Orfeo & Euridice

Orfeo is a story about Orpheus going to the underworld to save his wife Euridice who died

-Late Baroque (Opera)
-Dido and Aeneas
-Ground bass or basso ostinato (repeating bass line)
Secco recitative
-Nahum Tate

-Wrote libretto of Dido and Aeneas

Dido & Aeneas

-Aeneas fall in love with Dido but witches plot Dido downfall by falsely making Aeneas leave and Dido kills herself

Antonio Vivaldi
-Late Baroque
-Known as the red priest
-Solo concerto (single soloist vs. orchestra, three movements (fast, slow, fast)
-La Primavera (tutti (ritornello) vs. solo)
-Terraced dynamics –
-Word painting
Francesca Caccini
-Early Baroque (Opera)
-The Camerata
-O Che Nuovo Stupor
-Spiritual aria
-Late Baroque
-Concerto grosso (small group of soloist vs. orchestra)
-Brandenburg Concerto No. 5, 1st mvt (tutti (ritornello) vs. solo)

-Cadenza: soloist plays by himself without group

-Fugue (polyphonic composition based on one theme)
-“Little” Fugue in G minor

-Countersubject (An melodic idea that accompanies the subject)
-Pedal point (Bass is held while other notes produce changing harmonies)

-Suites (set of dance related movements)
-Orchestral Suite No. 3, 4th mvt., Bouree (AABB)
-Cantata (Something that is sung, based on a chorale)
-Cantata No. 140: Wachet Auf, 4th & 7th mvts

-Chorale written by Philipp Nicolai

-Late Baroque
-Supported by a patron (one who gives financial support)
-Oratorio (like opera except without costumes or acting and is about a sacred subject)
-Ev’ry Valley Shall Be Exalted

-Aria for tenor
-Word painting

Hallelujah Chorus

-All three textures (mono, homo, poly)

Early Music Guild
-Played Estampie
length:short, 20 min
performance venue:Lutheran church
performing forces:orchestra, soloist, chorus
staging:no staging
# of movements:5-10
length:long, hours
performance venue:theater/concert hall
performing forces:orchestra, soloist, chorus
purpose: entertainment
staging:no staging
# of movements:lots
length:long, hours
performance venue: public(theater/concert hall)
performing forces:orchestra, soloist, chorus
staging:costume, props, lighting, sets, special effects
text/plot:mythology/greek dramas
# of movements:lots
tune. The main thing you would hum for a song
chords accompanying a melody
o Minor: sad, sinister, angry
o Major: happy
o Pulse: the beat
o Meter: the arrangement of stressed and unstressed beats
o Tempo: speed
• Largo: slow
• Prestissimo: fast
o Crescendo: getting louder
o Decrescendo: getting quieter
o Monophonic: one melody. all parts move in parallel rhythm and pitch
o Homophonic: two or more parts move together in harmony, the relationship between them creating chords
o Polyphonic: parts move with rhythmic independence
tone color, orchestration
organization of musical material in time
o Repetition
o Variation
o Contrast
o Ex. ABA
Ordinary mass
a song that can be performed at church any day
Proper mass
a song that should be performed on a specific day in church (Easter, Christmas etc)
singing one syllable per note
the singing of a single syllable of text while moving between several different notes in succession
any call and response style of singing. Any piece of music performed by two semi-independent choirs in interaction, often singing alternate musical phrases.
to rob, tempo changes
disjunct motion
leaps (A,E,C)
conjunct motion
steps (A,B,C), Gregorian chants
melodic contour
shape of the melody
plainchant (“Gregorian”)
monophonic, no instruments
measured rhythm
Medieval period, not written down
liturgy/liturgical music
specific kind of music, done in church worship setting, Agnus Dei
parallel organum
Gregorian chant with additional melodic lines moving in parallel motion
florid organum
Gregorian chant with additional melodic lines moving faster than original chant
imitation (in polyphony)
overlap of the same melody
Cantus firmus
chant term in Angus Dei
Protestant Reformation
started by martin luther, break away from the catholic church
Counter Reformation / Council of Trent
polyphonic music made it impossible to understand text, secular music for mass was not okay, Kyrie was an example that it was okay
Well-Tempered Clavier
48 preludes and fugues by Bach to show tuning
Art of the Fugue
all of Bach’s fugue writings
Anglican Church
Thomas Tallis
The Triumphes of Oriana
Queen Elizabeth I, Weelkes, As Vesta Was Descending
Paired courtly dances
Terpsichore, Michael Praetorius
single vocal melody with accompaniment, also known as homophonic, early baroque
Expressive dissonance
not ending at rest, Monteverdi
“Doctrine of the Affections”
one emotion at a time
many notes per syllable of text
syllabic style singing
one note per syllable of text
3 movements, with one or more soloists
solo concerto
one soloist accompanied by an orchestra
concerto grosso
group of soloists that are accompanied by orchestra
single melody, no accompaniment, Early Music Guild
Primo libro della musiche
By Caccini, O Che Nuovo Stupor
creation of music the same time it is formed, Bach
strophic form
a passage that looks a fugue, Bach, Cantata
-Gregorian chant
-single syllables of text
medieval period (450-1450) composers
Pope Gregory
Hildegard of Bingen
Renaissance period (1450-1600) composers
Josquin Desprez
Thomas Tallis
Thomas Weelkes
John Dowland
Michael Praetorius
Early Baroque (1600-1680) composers
Francesca Caccini
Late Baroque (1680-1750) composers
Antonio Vivaldi