What are the basic elements of sound?
and timbre.
time and speed (actitexture lasts for centries, literature can be read and re-read, but music, like dance, unfolds through time and then disapears.) It’s measurment is not space…but time.)
frequency, how high or low the some is percieved.
the loudness or softness of the sound. the intensity of the sound
tone color, the distinquishment of individual sounds of the instruments. being able to tell an obe and a flute apart.
fundamental tones and harmonics
instrument sounds produce a vibration that dominates the sound and allows us to distinguish between it. Harmonics are the undertones that add to the sound but are masked by the fundamental tones.
Music as a measure of time..
meter and time signitures
the beat is the smallest musical measurment. the beats are the same in length but not in speed.
“we sense the beat as a compelling physical presence that is propelling us through time at a certain speed.” our sensation of movement is largely manipulated by the beat.
it is the rate of speed at which the beat moves.
tempo indications
largo-very slow
larghetto-very slow, but slightly faster than largo

grave-very slow and solem
lento- slow
adaigo-slow at ease
andante-moderatly slow
allegretto- fast
allegro- fast cheerful
vivace- lively
presto-very fast
prestissimo- as fast as possible

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meno- less
molto- much
non troppo- not too much
piu- more
poco a poco- little by little

metronome is a marking showing how fast to go…quarter note would be 60 per min. so each beat last 1 sec.
not dictated by the beat…it deviates form the beat and accelerates gradually changing the tempo.
same, but it gradually slows the beat.
certain beats are given stress….

and accented beat followed by an unaccented beat is called a measure. and a series of measures in a repeated pattern are called a meter.

duple meter
a measure of two beats…one accented then one not.
triple meter
the waltz…one accented downbeat with two unaccented beats.
quadruple meter
march time
one stressed downbeat with 3 weak ones
small units called beats organized into units called measures…and put into patterns and structures named meters.
the musical flow with a system of proportions.
rhythmic notations
whole note
half note
quarter note
eight note
sixteenth note
they are the beat that remains silient.
tempos tell us how fats the beat moves, metter tells us how we group the beats in a measure and proportional note values provide a relationship between the beat and the duration (eigth note ex.)