Dances from Czech Repub. Dvorak  This is the fast movement

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The stylised form of the dance was often used by Czech composers such as Antonin Dvořák in his Slavonic Dances and in his sixth symphony 

Dvorak This is the slow version of dance. characterized by a gently plodding, dreamy duple rhythm, many examples are in triple meter, including the popular Op. 72 No. 2 by Dvořák. Dvořák’s last and best-known piano trio,;No. 4 in E minor, Op. 90, has six movements, each of which is a Dumka; the piece is sometimes called the;Dumky-Trio.[2]
;Hungarian Reed Instrument Bartok was inspired by this instrument and is incorporated into several of his works.;

Black face minstrel doll.; A character in children;s book.; Debussy composed a cake walk for that doll. A cake walk is a dance march.

The sixth movement of Debussy’s Children’s Corner;is titled “Golliwogg’s Cakewalk”, inspired by the American dance.


Using different elements from different Countries Tchaikovsky uses Asian or Arabic.; Exotic you are always bringing in the other;s influence.

In;music;exoticism is a genre in which the rhythms, melodies, or instrumentation are designed to evoke the atmosphere of far-off lands or ancient times (e.g.;Ravel’s Daphnis et Chloé and Tzigane for Violin and Orchestra, Debussy’s;Syrinx for Flute Solo;or;Rimsky-Korsakov’s Capriccio espagnol)

Progressive Romanticism
Mahler, Straus expanded the orchestra and features and musical resources Tonality
Musical Style that flourished in the period 1890 to 1920’s associated chiefly with the French composer Claude Debussy and characterized by a blurring of distinct harmonies, rhythms, timbres and forms.
Poets such as Stephane Mallarme who envied music’s ability to suggest without stating, to construct forms without the burden of representation. Debussy illustrates symbolism with The Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun.
Aesthetic movement of all the arts in the early 20th century that consciously avoided the cultivated traditions of Western art. In music primitivism gave special importance to rhythm, the most basic of all musical elements and abandoned or substantially altered such arbitrary (so-called civilized) concepts of voice leading, triadic harmony, and the major and minor forms of the diatonic scale. 
Broad artisitic movement of the early 20th century that sought to give voice to the unconscious, to make manifest humanity’s deepest and often darkest emotions. in Freud terms: Expressionist art bypasses the ego and aims striaght for the id, the unconscious repository of primal urges.
Music by Shastakovich the music did not have any function.; You are only concerned with form and structure.;;
Soviet Realism
Aesthetic Doctrine espoused by Soviet Bloc authorities in the 20th Century to encourage artists to produce works in a readily accessible style. In music, works written under the influence of socialist realism typically incorporate folk or folk-like elements and project and overwhelmingly optimisitic tone.
Style that emerged in the 1910’s and 1920’s, characterized by a return to the tonal idiom, conventional genres and forms that ideal of absolute music, conciseness of expression, and a general tendacy toward transparent textures, lighter orchestration, and small ensembles. ;
New objectivity
New Objectivity in music, as in the visual arts, rejected the sentimentality of late;Romanticism;and the emotional agitation of expressionism. Composer;Paul Hindemith;may be considered both a New Objectivist and an expressionist, depending on the composition, throughout the 1920s.;
is a;German;term, essentially meaning ;utility;music,; for music that exists not only for its own sake, but which was;composed;for some specific, identifiable purpose. This purpose can be a particular historical event, like a political rally or a military ceremony, or it can be more general, as with music written to accompany dance, or music written for amateurs or students to perform. Paul Hindemith
Twelve-Tone Music
Golden Mean
Nadia Boulanger
French Music Composer, Conductor, and Music Professor who taught Bernstien, Copeland.;
Serge Diaghilev
Non Musician, Producer and Impressario Who brought together Composers Artists and Dancers and founder of the Ballet Russes. ;Moves away from classical traditions of dance towards more athletic, vigorous kinds of dance.
Vaslav Nijinsky
Russian ballet dancer and;choreographer;of Polish descent. Nijinsky was one of the most gifted male dancers in history, and he grew to be celebrated for his virtuosity and for the depth and intensity of his characterizations. He could perform;en pointe, a rare skill among male dancers at the time (Albright, 2004) and his ability to perform seemingly gravity-defying leaps was also legendary.
;Nikolai Roerich
He also succeeded in the field of stage design, achieving his greatest fame as one of the designers for Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes. His best-known designs were for Borodin’s;Prince Igor;(1909 and later productions) and;The Rite of Spring;(1913), the libretto for which he co-created with;Igor Stravinsky.
Italian’s used Verdi’s name as an acronym Vittorio Emanuele Re D’Italia (Victor Emanuel King of Italy) Verdi’s works were used to rouse Italin Nationlism
;Mily Balakirev
Russian Composer ;who was quick to incorporate into his symphonies such nationalistic elements as modal inflections, folk inspired rhythms and the rich tradition of the Russian Brass Ensemble.;Balakirev brought together the composers now known as;The Five, encouraging their efforts and acting as a musical midwife both for them[1];and for;Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.[2]
Oscar Wilde
Irish;playwright,;poet;and;author;of numerous;short stories;and one;novel. Known for his biting wit, he became one of the most successful playwrights of the late;Victorian era;in London, and one of the greatest;celebrities;of his day. Several of his plays continue to be widely performed, especially;The Importance of Being Earnest. Decadent.
Stephane Mallarme
French;symbolist;poet, and his work anticipated and inspired several revolutionary artistic schools of the early 20th century, such as;Dadaism,;Surrealism, and;Futurism.
Zoltan Kodaly

Bartok’s colleague who made frequent use of distinctively ethnic characteristics in their own music.  They often incorporate irregular rhythms and meters and generally avoided the conventions of functional harmony.  


Bertold Brecht
 German poet,playwright, and theatre director. 
Joseph Stalin
Double Aria


Arias during this period consisted of two sections. A slow opening (1) and a (2) fast virtuosic ending (the ending is known as the cabaletta) 


The fast virtousic ending of a double aria 


German for “leading motiff” 

Musical idea, that relates to something which is usually representative of a character or idea. First used by Ricahrd Wanger


Meaning total work of art. Incorporates all art mediums visual, audible, etc. Wagner controlled all of this by building his own designing his own theater, costumes, music, etc in the town of Bayreuth. 
German town home of Richard Wagner and hosts the Wagner festival each summer.
Tristan Chord
Creates harmonic ambiguity. You don’t know what key you are in because it can be resolved in many different ways. Created by Richard Wagner for his opera “Tristan Und Isdolde”;
Germinal Chord
Used by Strauss in Elektra.;Richard Stauss in Electra a chord that a composer invents that is not based on a chain of triads.; It;s a 4th and something else. Very dissonant chord.;;
Mystic Chord
A chord created by Scriabin for his work Promotheos. The cords consists of 4ths and a tritones.;
Beethoven’s 10th
In reality it is Bhrams 1st. It was very similar to what Beethoven would have written. Was composed from sketches of Beethoven unfinished 10th symphony.
Meaning a nations spirit. Deals with Nationalism. All music was included even folk music since it was considered repersentative. This will be through a taming of folk music.  They will use harmony and instrumentation that has nothing to do with folk music
Refers to Italian Reunification. The Italian people were scattered during this time and fought for reunification. In protest people would graffiti V.E.R.D.I on walls. 2 reasons, 1. in order to mislead and make people believe you were a fan instead of 2. their love for Victorio Emauele re Di Italy (the King of Italy). 
Song of Haiawatha
Originally a Poem by Henry Longfellow about Native American. Dvorjak was inspired by the piece when he wrote the 2nd movment of The New World Symphony. The slow movement is believed by some people to be a negro spiritual.
Moguchaya Kuckka
Meaning the Russian group of 5 also known as the mighty handful. A group of composers from based in St. Petersburg, included Korsokov, Balakirev, Cui, Borodin, and  Mussorgsky’s.;
Les Six
Les Six;is a name, inspired by;The Five, given in 1923 by critic;Henri Collet;to a group of six composers working in;Montparnasse;whose music is often seen as a reaction against;Wagnerism;and;Impressionism. Auric, Durey, Honegger, Milhaud, Poulenc, Tailleferre;
whole tone scale
Also known as a hexotonic scale because it consists of 6 notes. Has a static quality. Very hard to resolve. Can only be trasposed twice.;Feature whole steps only no half steps, can only build augmented chords with this scale.; The chords are all similar.; You don;t have the idea of tension or resolution.; 2 transpositions possible
Octatonic Scale
8 notes 3 transpositions possible whole half whole half whole half until you have 8.; Symmetric not like the major and minor scale.;;
Twelve-Tone Row
You chose which will be the order of 12 tones and that will be your scale.; Organized according to your choice.; A set of 12 tones in a specific organization at the choice of the composer.; Purpose of playing it in a grid.; Composers will not always use the 48 versions.;;
The idea of using the same musical material but in contrasting tempos.;Same melody with different rhythms, ornamentations, imbellishments.; Heterophony is different than Polyphony.;
Progressive Tonality
Attributed to Mahler. Every Movment is in a different key, as opposed to keeping the entire work in a different key.;Mahler the first movement was in C minor the final movement was in E flat which is use of progression.;In certain pieces;Mahler composes in Key’s progressively never comes back to the orginal key.
The use of two different keys at the same time. Stravinsky used this in his work Petrushka. 
Non-Pulsatile Rhythm
no regular beat
Bartok Pizzicato
The pulling of the violin string in order to get it to slap against the wood. 
Vocal texture which includes a blend of singing and speaking. For the most part it is sung, but because of the pace it sounds spoken. Made famous in Burlesque, Cabaret, and whore houses. Doesn’t have to be repeated notes, you do not sustain the value of each note.  You approximately reach the intended pitch and immediately leave it.  Shoenbergs inspiration was from Cabaret music.
Cecilian Movement
Tendecy amoung 19th century composers to restore Gregorian Chant and the style of 16th century a cappella polyphony as the ideals of church. 
Wunderhorn Symphonies
Symphonies 1-5 by Gustav Mahler. Mahler took inspiration from Wunderhorn, a collection of poems, to write the symphonies. 
Jewish band folk music Ashkenazi the People from central Europe Wind bands with clarinets Mahler was inspired 
Indonesian music for percussion gongs, inspired Debussy.  Layers of instruments with gongs.  Rhythmic melodic patterns.  Each layer increases speed or embellishment.