all running notes


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when everyone drops out & one soloist improvises & shows off

Chorale Prelude
 an important genre of keyboard music at the time, is an organ composition incorporating a hymn tune.
7 verses) – Lutheran church services à oratorio à a composition in several movements for solo voices, instruments and also a chorus

breaks in chorale

Gapped – breaks in chorale

        Continuous – no breaks


sacred drama set to music (opera about a religious subject)

Dance Suite

ABA form

       A                  B                    A

   —–^—–       —–^—–       —–^—–

 ||:A:||:B:||      ||:C||:D:||     ||:B:||:A:||

Dance suite

AB form





A_A __B_B

Dance Suite
collection of misc. stylized dances
a piece that sounds complete but is a part of a composition (one of a set)

songs against each other

(sung, recited, or played alternately by two groups)

Ritornello (form)
(return) piece of music in orchestra that keeps returning
Concerto grosso
a small group of soloists with full orchestra à (2 or more soloist + instruments in a somewhat contest)

soloist + orchestra à a three-part musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra


– musical forms are clearer and more regular in the Baroque period than in most other historical periods. 2 factors; social & intellectual

Standard texture is polyphonic
Baroque orchestra

group of instruments in the violin family

Basic Baroque

Festive Baroque

Tone color
Bach’s notably sensitive writing for the flute, harpsichord textures, organ, etc
once it was chosen or set it remained at about the same level throughout the whole section

poly composition whereby fugal subject passed from voice to voice or instrument to instrument in staggered fashion

Opera house
singers and composers were supplied music to show off their talents.

under patronage of kings or members of the nobility a musician was employed, they were kept in better touch with musical developments since it required them to travel.

in the cathedrals, monasteries, and town churches of the Baroque era, the general assumption was that the organist & choir masters would compose their own music, then play & conduct it.
Vocal Music
all instruments should imitate the human voice
 – An instrumentalist or singer of great technical ability.
dances selected from operas & ballets


with a women “last ranked madrigal composer”

Accomp Recit
instrumental accompaniment to the vocal soloist – substantially more so than in recitative secco. There is often a stronger metric pulse (all instruments in orchestra come in) à (+) rhythym, meter & tempo
Secco recit
sung narrative that follows the natural flow of language (it is speech-like) à(only 3 pieces: organ, chello & singer) à (-) no apparent rhythm, meter or tempo (DRY) think of harpsichord
a song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment
a vocal line that imitates speech à a half singing half reciting style of presenting words in opera, cantata & oratorio

drama set to music

Seria – serious opera from ancient history (solo singining)

        Buffa – comic opera


Well tempered clavier
musical composition by Bach à prelude & fugue à 1 in every major & minor key (48 pieces)
Well tempered tuning
system of tuning devised in Baroque era à allowed all fixed pitched instruments à G sharp & A flat = same pitch
Ground bass

the organization of system tuning based on Pythagorean theory à G sharp & A flat not in same pitch