The first great opera by Monteverdi in 1604
A type of singing that closely resembles spoken words
A soloistic vocal piece that is more concerned with music than text
Romantic music began to exploit the — capabilities of performers
Performers now reached a “—” status with the general public
In addition, the — of the piano increased the capabilities of the performers
This composer: was mainly a performer; played and composed the violin, mandolin, guitar, and orchestra; had very large hands and fingers which made it possible for him to execute what some thought was impossible (some thought this was a gift from the devil)
Niccolo Paganini
This composer was: mostly educated in Paris; Taken to Vienna at an early age to study piano; At 11, he began touring Europe playing the virtuoso music of the day, used his good looks to his advantage by performing in ‘profile’; he combined poetic “expressiveness with demonic virtuosity” in his performances
Franz Liszt
This composer was: originally from Poland, but forced to leave upon Russian takeover; called the “poet of the piano”; when he died, his heart was buried in Poland, as he had requested
Fr?d?ric Chopin
This composer’s style included: long, song-like melodies; added dissonance for color; seemed bizarre to traditionalist, but highly organized; liberal use of rubato to increase the dramatic effect of the music; devoted nearly all his attention to piano music to get every conceivable color, sound, and nuance
Fr?d?ric Chopin
Short, piano compositions expressing much in a short amount of time
Character pieces
Introspective pieces of improvisatory character
Narrative songs without words
Quiet, eloquent evocations of intimacy and delicate sounds
Studies or exercises to explore a particular pianistic technique
Character pieces, impromptus, ballades, nocturnes, and etudes are also all parts of this composer’s style
Fr?d?ric Chopin
This composer: wanted to become the “Paganini of Piano”; He permanently injured his little finger on a “finger development machine” he created, thus ending his performing career; He then turned his focus to composing music for the piano
Robert Schumann
This composer was: lived from 1813-1901; a master of theatre technique and well versed in the Italian tradition of beautiful singing; a musical and political nationalist; wife and kid later died leaving him heartless to compose for several years
Giuseppe Verdi
This composer: lived from 1858-1924; leader in this movement, called verisimo; sought to capture reality and express it through the unlikely medium of opera; suffered from early illness and death
Giacomo Puccini
This composer: lived from 1813-1883; was a poet before he became a musician; had little formal music education; was impressed by the uncompromising teachings of the German philopsopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, who advocated the pursuit of human perfection by the practice of severe self-discipline; political activist. Loved and married Liszt’s illegitimate daughter, Cosima, and fled to Switzerland in exile for many years.
Richard Wagner
Mid 19th century French serious opera, emphasizing spectacular visual effects.
grand opera
Realism in opera
Recurring melodic fragment or chord bearing dramatic or emotional significance
Light opera
Settings of humorous, often multi-syllabic words sung very rapidly, with comic effect
Patter songs