the way mot music seems to flow naturally logically
Continuous forms

musical compositions in which the continuity is seldom broken

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– few internal divisions or interruptions

-relatively little contrast

-test-based: vocal compositions based on texts that have no repeated sections and cannot be broken down into verses


Pattern-Based Continuous Forms

  • based on musical patterns that are repeated throughout the work
  • preludes, inventions, fugues, passacaglias, and chaconnes are pattern-based


-poised between Europe and Asia

-often considered part of the Middle East

-Black Sea lies to north, Aegean Sea to west, and Mediterranean Sea to north

-Once called Anatolia

11th century: Muslims captured Anatolia and began building Ottoman Empire

-Reached its high point in 16th century but continued until 20th century

Classical Music of Turkey

-stretches back at least 500 years

-one of hte most highly developed musics of the world and includes eextensive religious music (mosque and mystical music)

– Turkish heads of state were also composers

-repertoire of Turkish classical music includes 1000s of compositions


Sultan Veled
elder son of poet and mystic Rumi, is believed to be the composer of thee earliest instrumental pieces that still survive
Abdulkadir Meragi
another important early composer
Buhurizade Mustafa Itri
regarded as most important Turkish composer
What was popular in Vienna during classical period form Turkey (1750-1825)?

-Turkish military bands were primary Turkish influence on European music

-Mozart and Beethoven called in “Janisary music” or “alla turca” style

When did Turkish classical music begin to be influenced by European music?

19th century

-instruments like piano an dcello were introduced

-western european art music became popular

-a national opera and two symphony orchestras were established

Turkish composers continued to draw upon on Turkish traditions

What does Turkish classical music consist of?

Melody played by several instruments, and they’re accompanied by drums

-each plays slightly different variation

-results in heterophonic texture


basic pitch set in Turkish music

-100s of them

-somewhat similar to ragas in India

-include idea of scale and a set of forms from which melodies are derived

Egreti karar
main melodic tone in makams
Improvise or not?
Yes, there is considerable room for improvisation within the composed structure
Instruments in Turkish Music
Strings, winds, and percussion

Plucked string instruments: Ud= (ancestor of West Lute), Tanbur= (longer-necked, six-stringed ud)

Bowed string instruments: Kemence= a fiddle, violonsel= a cello, kanun= struck-string instrument like the zither

Wind Family
Ney: end-blown cane flute, originally Egyptian
pair of small kettle drums

musical ensemble for Turkish classical music

-consists of a # of wind, string, and percussion instruments

-dozen players



religious community (Sufis)

-some say Sufi comes from Arabic word suf, which means wool, and refers to plain wool cloaks worn by these materially poor spiritual seekers

Sufism has roots that extend beyond recorded history, (also believed that it began at time of prophet Muhammad)

-Sufism takes literally the Muslim affirmation “La illaha illa’llalh”-“there is no God but God”



central practice of many Sufis

-involves repetitive reciting of this affirmation

Mevlevi order

branch of Sufism

-founded by poet and philosopher Mevlana Jalalu’ddin Rumi


Mevlevi form of worship

-ceremony that centers on a whirling dance

-Dancers are called whirling dervishes in the West

-Vocal and instrumental

-Begins with a eulogy to Muhammad (by soloist)

-Followed by takism (improvised ney- solo than establishes the pitch)

Then Sultan Veled Peshrev (processional): accomp. by instrumental music

Where can you find a place to hear Turkish classical music?
four whirling dances
general Turkish name for a musical prelude at beg. of aperformance
Text-Based Continuous Forms

primary text-based continuous forms are the motet and the through-composed song

-motet- sacred music

-through-composed: usually secular


comes frm French “mot”, meaning word

-word-based compisitions

Josquin Desprez

one of the greatest composers of the Renaissance

-born around 1440, in France (no records of family or schooling)

-worked in Italy, moved to France (served courts) (died in France)

-Composition to commemorate the death of Pope’s son, who was murdered

-text taken from 3 verses in Old Testament (Hebrew Bible)

-Each line of text is given a contrapuntal setting with all four voices usually imitating each other

– scholars feel the motet was not intended for religious purposes, but for Pope’s privacy

Imitative counterpoint
polyphonic texture in which all parts sing the same melody or similar melodies, but each part enters at a different time

primary musical genre that involves extensive improv

-developed in US (military bands, ragtime, hymnals, West-African Music, walztes, Spanish, French)



Early Jazz Instruments
came from military bands

influence, popular in late 19th century American Music

– usually written in compound binary form

-with syncopated rhythms borrowed from African American banjo music

-Banjo is New World descendent of banya (West-African origin)

Birthplace of Jazz

New Orleans, Louisiana

-French, African, Spanish citizens

-1890s: every town had its own band

Party atmosphere

Form in Jazz

most improvisation in jazz is a spontaneous variation on preexisting musical materials

3 main sources:

-popular songs

–composed themes

-the blues

Popular Songs

Many are in ternary form:


-Head: straightforward statement of repetitions with improvised solos

-head is repeated to bring the work to a close

Composed themes

jazz composers sometimes create compound themes

-might be in ternary form or another form

-in some cases a theme is given lyrics and become a popular song in its own right

The Blues

secular African American vocal music

-developed in the late 19th century in Miss. Delta and TX

-originally sang w/o accomp. or singer accomp. himself with simple instrument (washboard, banjo, guitar)

– form became basis of instrumental blues form

-characterized by 12-measure harmonic progression repeated throughout the song

-form created is a pattern-based continuous form centering on this harmonic progression

Duke Ellington

received numerous awards and citations around the world

– Edward Kennedy Ellington in 1899 in Wash. D.C.

-formed a band that played at dances

1922- moved to NYC but bookings were tight

1923: hired at the Kentucky Club

1926: Duke + Mills, who became his manager

1927: engaged to the Cotton Club, had 15 members (not 9)

1938: Billy Strayhorn joined the band: made a jazz standard (Lush Life), quickly assoc. with Ellington



extended composition in several movements