Middle Ages
Dark ages or age of faith 450-1450
Christian crusades to recover holy city of Jerusalem from Muslims. Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals. Roman Catholic church was in control. Europe and 100 year war and black death (bubonic plague) killed 1/4 of population.
Music in the middle ages
dominated by the church. women couldn’t sing in church but in convents. only sacred pieces were notated for the most part. most was vocal.
Gregorian chant
official music of the roman catholic church. consists of melody set to sacred latin texts and sung without accompaniment. monophonic in texture. no meter or beat.
Mass
the highlight of the liturgical day. a ritual reenactment of the last supper..
Office
eight services. first before sunrise and last at sunset.
Church modes
unfamiliar scales of gregorian chants. consist of seven different tones and eighth note that duplicates the first octave higher.
Alleliua
gregorian chant in ABA form. most notes are sung to single syllables of text.
O successores
Hildegard of Bingen-nun. gregorian chant. sung by nuns in her convent. words came to her in vision. refers to Christ as lion and lamb. To succors of Christ. has drone. large pitch range, wide leaps. one to 4 notes per syllable
Drone
consists of one or more long, sustained tones accompanying a melody.
Troubadours
french nobles. first people to notate secular music.
Estampie
a medieval dance. is one of the earliest surviving forms of instrumental music. triple meter, strong, fast beat.