What does ASCAP stand for?
The American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers.
What are the copyright symbols and what do they do?
? or p in a circle. It protects performance. © or c in a circle. It protects printed material.
What type of music in movies is the type that you see in the scenes and not just hear from an unknown source? For example: A piano player in a bar.
Source Music.
What is music in a movie that comes from an unknown source?
What songs were played to represent the 40’s, 50’s, and 60’s in that respective order?
White Christmas by Bing Crosby
Hound Dog by Elvis
Hey Jude by The Beatles
What songs were played to represent the 70’s, 80’s, and 90’s in that respective order?
Hotel California by Eagles
Billie Jean by Michael Jackson
Smells Like Teen Spirit by Nirvana
What song was played in class to represent the 2000’s?
Hey Ya! by Outkast
Are you supposed to applaud in between the movements of a work?
What is the item called that most conductors hold in their hand?
Translate the symbols and explain what they mean.


pp = Piano Piano = Play softer than Piano.

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p = play Piano = play soft.

mp = play Mezzo Piano = Play a little louder than Piano.

mf = Play Mezzo Forte = Play a little quieter than forte.

f = play Forte = play loud

ff = play Forte Forte = a little louder than forte.

What does “opus” mean?
In a choir of voices, what does SATB stand for?
Soprano, Alto, Tenor, and Bass.
What is #? What does it do?
Sharp. It raises the pitch one note.
What is ?? What does it do?
Flat. Lower’s the pitch one note.
Which instrument is the smallest (and most numerous) string instrument in the orchestra?
What metal instruments could be described as two metal plates struck together?
Spell out the metal instrument that could be described as two metal plates struck together.
What are the 4 types of instruments?
Strings, Woodwinds, Brass, and Percussion.
What is the difference between a woodwind and a brass instrument?
Woodwinds are powered solely by air because there is a reed/double reed that vibrates.

Brass instruments do not contain a reed/double reed and therefore must be powered by either (or a combination of) air, buzzing lips, or voice

How many Tubas are in a typical Orchestra?
What is style?
The characteristic manner of the presentation of the elements of music.
What is Piracy in respect to music?
Illegal distribution and duplication of protected music.
What is a Jingle?
A tune used in advertising.
What is a mole?
A catchy part of the song or jingle that is not obvious.
What is a hook?
A memorable or catchy part of the song.
What is an ear worm?
A song or tune you can’t get out of your head.
What is <
Crescendo, or Growing louder.
What is >
Decrescendo/diminuendo, growing softer.
What is a definition for music in contrast to just sound?
Music is sound organized to produce an emotional reaction.
What are the elements of music?
Rhythm, Melody, Harmony, Texture, Form, Tempo, Dynamics, and Timbre.
What is Rhythm?
Controlled movement of music in time.
What is a metronome?
A device used to indicate tempo.
What is melody?
A succession of single tones perceived as a unity.
What is pitch?
The highness or lowness of a note.
What is harmony?
The simultaneous combination of notes.
What is form?
Structure and design in music.
What is tempo?
The rate of speed of the music.
What are dynamics?
The loudness or softness of the music.
What is the texture?
The interweaving of the elements into the musical fabric.
What is timbre?
The quality of sound.
What is a beat?
A regular pulse or a unit of musical time.
What is a pulse?
A series of beats.
What is a meter?
A grouping of beats.
What is a rest?
Silence in music.
Who is the composer?
The writer of the music.
What is an arranger?
A person who adopts the music to a certain situation.
What is a movement?
Part of a larger work in the symphony.
What is important about the first violinist?

What do you do when the first violinist appears?

The first violinist is the concert master and at his behest, the oboe plays a not to tune the orchestra.


What does the conductor stand on?
A podium.
What is an encore?
French for “again”. An encore is a piece of music that is not necessarily on the program.
What is a song?
A short musical work with words.
What are lyrics?
The words to a song.
What is a cover song?
A remake of an earlier recording.
Name the three successful composers mentioned in class.

Which of these was the most successful?

Danny Elfman
Howard Shore
John Williams* <-- most famous. Jaws, star wars, and harry potter.
What is the RIAA?
The Recording Industry Association of America.
What is the first beat of each measure called?
The downbeat.
What is an instrumental?
A song like music. No lyrics.
Define: accent
Musical stress.
What are Rhythmic Modes?
Fixed rhythmic patterns of long and short notes.
What does bpm stand for?
Beats per minute.
Whereas pitch is subjective _____ is objective.
The higher the pitch, the higher the ___.
What does VPS and HZ stand for? Are they equivalent?
Vibrations per second and Hertz.
What are the basic note names? How many are there?
To go up an octave, you double the ___.
What is an octave?
The 8th note. ABCDEFGA*
What is a phrase?
Musical unit of melody, like an English phrase in a paragraph.
What is a scale?
A series of ascending or descending notes.
What is Cadence?
An ending or resting point in music.
What is motive?
A short, melodic, and or Rhythmic idea.
What is a chord?
A single block of harmony.
What is dissonance?
Harsh, unstable musical sound.
What is consonance?
Stable, harmonious sounds.
What is arpeggio?
A broken chord.
What is common time?
A 4 beat measure.
Sustained vs. unsustained.
A note that keeps going vs. a note that decays. For example: strumming a violin continuously vs. playing a note on the piano.
What is a percussion instrument?
Anything that you make noise with (basically), that isn’t a stringed, woodwind, or brass instrument.
What are the 4 basic stringed instruments?
Violin, Viola, Cello, and Double Bass.
Are there frets in the violin family of instruments?
What noise pollution?
Unnecessary noise.
What instruments are in a standard woodwind quintet? Which of these is a brass instrument?
Flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, and horn*.
What instruments are in a standard brass quintet?
Two trumpets, horn, trombone, and a tuba.
What instruments are in a standard piano trio?
A violin, a cello, and a piano.
What is a standard string quartet?
What instrument is never in a string quartet?
2 violins, viola, and a cello.
A double bass.
What is a chamber ensemble?
A small ensemble of 9 or fewer musicians. Normally without a conductor.
What is a string orchestra?
A large or medium sized ensemble containing only stringed instruments.
What is a chamber orchestra?
Medium sized ensemble, mostly stringed instruments.
What is a concert band?
A large ensemble containing few or no stringed instruments. Typically only has a double bass.
What is an orchestra?
A large ensemble including many stringed instruments.
What is an ensemble?
A grouping of musicians performing together.
What is typical to the sound of a double reed?
It has a buzz.
What instrument has a player’s hand in the bell?
Does the horn use vibrato?
Almost never.
What is the solo instrument of choice for percussionists?
The Marimba.
What is a crescendo?
A sound that’s growing louder.
What is the Euphonium common and not so common in?
Common in band, not in symphony.
What looks like a tuba but is half as big?
The Euphonium.
Is the the trombone directional?
What is the lowest woodwind instrument?
Contra Bassoon.
What are the 4 double reed instruments?
Oboe, English Horn, Bassoon, and Contra Bassoon.
What is vibrato?
A slight wavering in tone.
Is saxophone normally in the orchestra?
What is Pizzicato?
Plucking a normally bowed instrument.
A mouth piece is used for what instruments?
What section is closest to the conductor?
The string section.
What is the most common orchestral percussion instrument?
Is the harp a string instrument? How many pedals are there? What do they do?
7, each corresponding to a note.
Makes all of the notes either flat or sharp.
JB: How fast does sound travel?
750 mph
JB: What are the woodwinds from highest pitched to lowest?
-piccolos, flutes
-oboe, English horn
-clarinet, bass clarinet
-bassoon, contra bassoon
JB: What are the brasses from highest to lowest pitched?
-tubas & euphoniums
JB: Where does the snare drum get its name?
The metal wires on the bottom head of the drum are called snares.
JB: What is the one string player common in a concert band?
A single double bass
JB: How can you tell a trumpet from a horn?
A trumpet sounds bright and crisp; a horn sounds mellow.
JB: Which brass instrument has no valves?
A trombone; it uses a slide instead.
JB: Which brass instrument has three buttons?
A trumpet
JB: Which instruments have a double reed?
Oboe, Bassoon, Contra Bassoon and English horn