German Classical composer whose career was based in teaching and performing. He wrote many symphonies, including Symphony No. 40
Austrain Classical composer known as the Father of the Symphony. He was a court composer. He composed Symphony no. 95.
German Classical composer who is known as being the “bridge” between Classical and Romantic music. One of his most famous symphonies is Symphony no. 5.
A large orchestral piece in several movements.
String Quartet
A musical ensemble of four string players, or 2 violins, 1 viola and 1 cello. Can also refer to a piece of music written for this ensemble.
Piano Concerto
A musical work that is written for one solo instrument accompanied by an orchestra. Typically has 3 movements.
A form used in a symphony as an opening or middle piece. Contains Exposition, Development, Recapitulation and Coda.
Drama presented in music, with the characters singing instead of speaking
Opera Buffa
Italian Comic Opera
Sonata Form
-A form developed by the Classical composers and used in almost all of the first movements of their symphonies
Minuet and Trio
Used in a symphony as a third movement. Based after a dance by the same name.
Double Exposition Form
-A type of sonata form developed for use in concertos.
Themes and Variations
The main subject and its deviations.
Used in a symphony as the final movement. Light and airy.
Standard Movement Pattern
Order in which a certain piece of music is performed. 4 movements, fast, moderate, slow and fastest.
Exposed theme, or presentation of the theme
1. The second section of the sonata-form movement OR 2. The process of expanding or developing themes into a larger movement.
1. The third section in the sonata-form movement OR 2. A “recap” or review of the movement
Transition (or Bridge)
-In sonata-form, the section that comes between the first theme and the second group and makes the modulation; also called transition.
First theme groups
-In sonata-form, the tune in the tonic key that begins the exposition.
Second theme groups
-In sonata-form, the group of themes that follow the bridge
Slow Introductions
Used in a symphony to precede the first movement.
A passage that brings a piece to a conclusion.
Operatic Ensembles
A passage performed by all of the singers in an Opera.
An improvised ornamental passage played by a soloist to show virtuosity.
Fast moving passage in a symphony or string quartet that replaced the minuet and trio section.
Standardized Instrumental Ensembles
Instead of the constantly changing ensembles, these were standardized.
Graduated dynamics
A more specific use of volume in the classical period.
Homophobic Textures
Classical music generally features a melody-with-accompaniment arrangement with background chords supported by a foreground melody.
Works shaped by areas of stable and unstable harmonies
Melodies with periodic phrase construction
Tunes arranged into short, often repeated sections.
Multiplicity and contrast with movements
Use of many different melodies within a single movement or even section.
Varied surface rhythms within movements
The music usually speeds up, slows down, speeds up again, etc. never keeping the same pace.