Baroque term for human emotions or states of the soul.
polychoral music
Music for two or more choirs, vocal, instrumental, or both, performed antiphonally. A characteristic feature of music of the Venetian school.
concertato principle
Principle of contrasting the sonorities of different performing ensembles
In the 15th and 16th centuries, an instrumental composition to be “sounded” on instruments rather than sung.
Music for one voice with a simple accompaniment, introduced by the Florentine Camerata.
Term originally meaning irregular, now applies to the dramatic, emotional style of 17th & early 18th century art.
Section of a complete work that has its own formal design and a degree of independence but is conceived as a part of the whole; usually separated from other movements by a pause.
tonal system
System of harmony based on the major and the minor scales.
“Sonata pian’ e forte”
Composed by Giovanni Gabrieli
first practice or stile antico
Polyphonic, conservative style of the late Renaissance.
second practice or stile moderno
Homophonic expressive style introduced by Monteverdi.
Use of tones not in the key on which a composition is based.
Dramatic vocal form blending visual, literary, and musical arts, performed in a theater or opera house.
Text of a dramatic vocal work
Speechlike setting of a text, with a homophonic accompaniment by a keyboard (dry recitative) or an orchestra (accompanied recitative).
Songlike setting of a text, muscally expressive, accompanied by an orchestra; generally homophonic in texture.
da capo aria
An aria with an ABA design
bel canto
18th century Italian singing style that emphasized the beauty and virtuosity of the voice.
castrato (plural=castrati)
Castrated male singer
ballad opera
English dramatic form in which comedy and satire were set to popular tunes
Dramatic vocal work on a religious subject, performed in a concert hall or church
Oratorio based on the events leading to the crucifixion of Christ.
Multimovement dramatic vocal work on a religious or secular subject, performed in concert style.
choral prelude
Prelude based on a Lutheran chorale melody.
Imitative polyphonic composition
Phapsodic, virtuosic keyboard form.
Collection of stylized dance pieces
basso continuo
Group of instruments, including a lute or a keyboard instrument and one or more sustaining bass instruments, that accompanied Baroque ensemble compositions.
figured bass
System of musical shorthand by which composers indicated intervals above the bass line with numbers (figures) rather than with notated pitches.
chamber music
Music for a small instrumental ensemble with one instrument per line of music.
chamber music
In the Baroque, a multimovement composition for one ore more solo instruments, a ccompanied by continuo.
trio sonato
A sonata for two solo instruments and continiuo
Mixed ensemble of string and wind instruments, conceived during the Baroque.
solo concerto
Multimovement composition for orchestra and one solo instrument.
concerto grosso
A multimovement composition for orchestra plus a small group of solo instruments.
“Hallelujah” Chorus from Messiah
Composed by Handel
“Tu se ‘ morta” from L’Orfeo

(guy singing opera about dead wife)

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Composed by Monteverdi.