Claudio Monteverdi
Italian, early Baroque, opera.
“Tu Se Morta from Orfeo”
Henry Purcell
English, middle Baroque, Opera
“Dido’s Lament”
Arcangelo Corelli
Italian, middle Baroque, sonatas
Antonio Vivaldi
Italian, middle Baroque, “the red priest”, taught in an orphanage, concerto gross and solo concerto
“La Primavera” Spring -Four seasons
Johann Sebastian Bach
German, late Baroque, every form except opera, master of improvisation, keyboardist.
“Suite no. 3 in D major”
“Cantata no. 140” chorale
“Brandenburg Concerto no. 5 1st movement”
“Organ Fugue in G Minor (Little Fugue)”
George Handel
German then Italy and England, late Baroque, opera then oratorio
“Messiah, Every Vally Shall be Exalted”
“Messiah, Hallelujah Chorus”
Concerto Grosso
Instrumental. Small group of soloists and orchestra. 3 movements: fast, slow, fast. Ritornello form: melody played by orchestra in first and last movements.
Solo Concerto
Instrumental. Similar to concerto grosso but only one soloist.
Polyphonic. Subject: main theme with imitation. Answer: melody on top of subject.
Started in Italy. Drama sung to orchestral accompaniment. Aria: more drawn out, expresses emotion. De Capo Aria: ABA improvisation and show off in second A. Recitative: Resembles speech, presents plot. Accompanied Recitative: more instruments.
Instrumental. 1 to 8 instruments. Trio Sonata: Basso Continuo and two other instruments. Sonata de chiesa: dignified church sonata. Sonata de camera: dance-like chamber sonata.
Instrumental. Multi movement based on dance.
Hymn tune with German text
Church cantata
Multi movement church work. German religious text. Uses chorale tune.
Like opera, but no costumes or scenery. Sacred, based on Biblical stories.
Baroque period
1600-1750. Early baroque: homophony. Late: polyphony. More instrumental. Rhythmic patterns.
Basso Continuo
Harmony in bass. Cello and keyboard.
Figured Bass
Bassline with numbers indicating chords
Baroque Orchestra
Mostly strings, limited percussion, basso continuo
Music in Baroque society
Music written to order. For courts and churches.
Musical melody played by the orchestra in first and last movements of concertos
Chord inversions indicated by the numbers in figured bass
When the music is played end to beginning
Opera in the Baroque period
Started from musical discussions of the Camerata in Florence, Italy. Composed for court ceremonies. First known opera: Euridice (Peri). First large-scale opera: Orfeo (Monteverdi).
Text of an opera or oratorio
Ground bass/basso ostinato
Lament. Repeated musical idea in bass.
Brandenburg Concerto #5
Bach. Concerto grosso. String orchestra and group of soloists. Ritornello form.
Organ Fugue in G Minor (Little Fugue)
Bach. Fourth voice on pedals.
Tu se’ morta, from Orfeo
Monteverdi. Opera aria. Voice and basso continuo.
Dido’s Lament, from Dido and Aeneas
Purcell. Opera aria. Ground bass..falling tears.
La Primavera (Spring), Concerto for Violin and String Orchestra, from The Four Seasons
Vivaldi. Solo concerto for violin. Polyphonic. Ritornello form.
Suite No. 3 in D Major
Bach. Suite. Strings and trumpets.
Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (Awake, a Voice is Calling Us)
Bach. Church cantata. Chorale tune.
Ev’ry Valley Shall Be Exalted, from Messiah
Handel. Oratorio. Orchestra ritornello. Virtuoso singer.
Hallelujah, from Messiah
Handel. Homophonic, polyphonic, and monophonic.