has always been an important part in the daily life of the African, whether for
work, religion, ceremonies, or even communication.
African music
has been a collective result from the cultural and musical diversity of the
more than 50 countries of the continent.
is a term used to describe the fusion
of West African with black American music.
Apala (Akpala)
is a musical genre from Nigeria in the
Yoruba tribal style to wake up the worshippers
after fasting during the Muslim holy feast of
is a popular musical genre from Salvador, Bahia, and Brazil. It fuses the Afro-
Caribbean styles of the marcha, reggae, and calypso
is a hard and fast percussive Zimbabwean dance
music played on drums with guitar accompaniment,
influenced by mbira-based guitar styles.
is a popular form of South African music
featuring a lively and uninhibited variation of the
is a popular music style from Nigeria that relies on the traditional Yoruba rhythms,
where the instruments in Juju are more Western in origin
Kwassa Kwassa
is a dance style begun in Zaire
in the late 1980’s, popularized by Kanda
Bongo Man. In this dance style, the hips move
back and forth while the arms move following
the hips.
is a South African three-chord
township music of the 1930s-1960s
which evolved into African Jazz.
is a Jamaican sound dominated by bass guitar
and drums.
music is Cuban, Puerto Rican, and Colombian
dance music.
is the basic underlying rhythm that typifies most Brazilian music. It is a lively and
rhythmical dance and music with three steps to every bar, making the Samba feel like a
timed dance.
is a modern Trinidadian and Tobago pop music
combining “soul” and “calypso” music.
is fast, carnival-like hythmic music, from the Creole
slang word for ‘party,’ originating in the Carribean Islands
of Guadaloupe and Martinique and popularized in the
first surfaced in the
African state of Pernambuco,
combining the strong rhythms of
African percussion instruments
with Portuguese melodies
is a musical form of the late 19th century that has had deep roots in African-
American communities.
James Brown
“Godfather of Soul,”
Cooke and Jackie Wilson
normally associated with a deeply religious person, refers here to a
Negro spiritual, a song form by African migrants to America who became enslaved by its
white communities.
Call and Response method
is a succession of two distinct musical phrases usually
rendered by different musicians, where the second phrase acts as a direct commentary on
or response to the first.
These are percussion instruments that are either struck with a mallet or against
one another.
is a West
African xylophone. It is a pitched
percussion instrument with bars
made from logs or bamboo.
are made of seashells, tin,
basketry, animal hoofs, horn, wood, metal bells,
cocoons, palm kernels, or tortoise shells. These
rattling vessels may range from single to several
objects that are either joined or suspended in such
a way as they hit each other.
is a single bell or multiple bells that had its origins in
traditional Yoruba music and also in the samba baterias (percussion)
Atingting Kon
These are slit gongs used to
communicate between villages.
Slit Drum
is a hollow percussion
instrument. Although known as a drum, it is not a
true drum but is an idiophone.
is one of the
best-known African drums is. It is shaped like a large goblet and played
with bare hands.
is a type of gourd and shell megaphonefrom West
Africa, consisting of a dried gourd with beads woven into a net covering
the gourd.
or scraper, is a hand percussion
instrument whose sound is produced by scraping the
notches on a piece of wood
are instruments which have vibrating animal membranes used
in drums.
Body Percussions
Africans frequently use their bodies as musical
Talking Drum
is used to send messages to announce
births, deaths, marriages, sporting events, dances, initiation, or war.
is a set of
plucked tongues or keys mounted on a sound board.
It is known by different names according to the regions
such as mbira, karimba, kisaanj, and likembe.
The thumb piano
or finger xylophone is of African origin and is used
throughout the continent.
Are instruments that produce sounds from vibration of strings
Musical Bow
The musical bow is the ancestor of all string instruments.
originating from the
Arabic states, is shaped like the modern guitar and played in similar fashion.
is Africa’s most sophisticated harp,
while also having features similar to a lute. Its body is
made from a gourd or calabash.
is a stringed instrument with varying sizes and shapes
whose strings are stretched along its body.
is an African fiddle played with a bow, a small wooden
stick, or plucked with the fingers.
are instruments which are produced initially by trapped vibrating air
columns or which enclose a body of vibrating air.
are widely used throughout Africa and either vertical or
consist of cane pipes of different lengths tied
in a row or in a bundle held together by wax or cord,
and generally closed at the bottom.
commonly made from elephant tusks and animal horns
Kudu Horn
This is one type of horn made from the
horn of the kudu antelope.
reed pipes
There are single-reed pipes made from hollow guinea corn or
sorghum stems, where the reed is a flap partially cut from the stem near one
are made of wood, metal, animal horns,
elephant tusks, and gourds with skins from snakes, zebras, leopards,
crocodiles and animal hide as ornaments to the
Modern Africans
make use of recycled waste materials such as strips of roofing metal,
empty oil drums, and tin cans.
Indigenous Latin-American Music
Native american/indian music
Afro-Latin American Music
Euro-Latin American Music
Mixed American Music
Popular Latin American Music
is a dance form of African origins
around 1838 which evolved into an African-
Brazilian invention in the working class and slum
districts of Rio de Janeiro.
is a fusion of the popular music or canciones (songs) of Spain and the african rumba rhythms of Bantu origin
is a social dance with marked influences from Cuba and Puerto
Rico that started in New York in the mid 1970’s
is a flute variety from the Aztec culture made
of clay with decorations of abstract designs or images of
their deities.
is a Mexican slit drum hollowed
out and carved from a piece of hardwood. It is
then decorated with designs in relief or carved to
represent human figures or animals to be used for
both religious and recreational purposes.
is a wind instrument made from a seashell usually
of a large sea snail.
is a hand percussion instrument whose sound is
produced by scraping a group of notched sticks with another
stick, creating a series of rattling effects.
is a Mexican upright tubular drum used by the
Aztecs and other ancient civilizations.
are instruments made of natural elements such
as bone from animals.
was an ancient vessel flute made of clay or
ceramic with four to 12 finger holes and a mouthpiece
that projected from the body.
were ancient instruments tuned to different
scalar varieties, played by blowing across the tubetop.
Typical models were either in pairs or as several bamboo
are side-blown cane flutes that are played all
year round.
Wooden Tarkas
are vertical duct flutes with a mouthpiece similar
to that of a recorder, used during the rainy season.
are vertical cane flutes with an end-notched made from fragile bamboo.
They are used during the dry season.
is a ten-stringed Andean guitar from Bolivia. It is the size of a ukulele
and a smaller version of the mandolin, imitating the early guitar and lute brought by
the Spaniards.
is an extremely popular band in Mexico whose original ensemble consisted
of violins, guitars, harp, and an enormous guitarron (acoustic bass guitar).
Latin American instruments
are extremely useful in adding life, color, and variety to
their many vocal and dance forms which have captured the world’s attention and
affectionate adoption.
became a popular African
courtship dance with European and African instrumentation and characteristics.
may have been of African origin meaning “African dance” or
from the Spanish word taner meaning “to play” (an instrument).
cha cha
is a ballroom dance the originated in Cuba
in 1953, derived from the mambo and its characteristic
rhythm of 2 crochets – 3 quavers – quaver rest, with a
syncopation on the fourth beat.
popular recreational dance of Afro-Cuban origin, performed in a
complex duple meter pattern and tresillo, which is a dotted quaver – dotted quaver
– dotted semiquaver rhythm.
Bossa nova
originated in 1958-59 as a movement effecting a radical change in
the classic Cuban samba.
Carlos Jobim
A foremost figure of bossa nova is Antonio
_________ who became famous with his
song Desafinado (1957).
Sitti Navarro
is a
singer who has become known as the “Philippines’
Queen of Bossa Nova.”
is a 20th century social dance that originated
after 1910 in the USA.
Paso doble
is a theatrical
Spanish dance used by the Spaniards in bullfights, where
the music was played as the matador enters (paseo)
and during passes just before the kill (faena).
is an American popular musical style mainly for piano, originating in the Afro-
American communities in St. Louis and New Orleans.
Big band
refers to a large ensemble form originating in the United States in
the mid 1920’s closely associated with the Swing Era with jazz elements.
bebop or bop
is a musical style of modern jazz which is characterized by a fast tempo,
instrumental virtuosity, and improvisation that emerged during World War II. The
Jazz rock
is the music of 1960’s and 1970’s bands that inserted jazz elements into rock
Popular music
literally means “music of the populace,” similar to traditional folk music
of the past.
originated as an expressive folksong in narrative verse with text dealing typically
about love.
Blues ballad
This is a fusion of Anglo-American and Afro-American styles from the 19th century
that deals with the anti-heroes resisting authority. The form emphasizes the
character of the performer more than the narrative content, and is accompanied
by the banjo or guitar.
Pop standard and jazz ballads
This is a blues style built from a single verse of 16 bars ending on the dominant or half-cadence, followed by a refrain/chorus part of 16 or 32 bars in AABA form.
pop and rock ballad
is an emotional love song with suggestions
of folk music, as in the Beatles’ composition “The Ballad of John
and Yoko” and Billy Joel’s “The Ballad of Billy.”
In music, the term _______ is used to denote the most popular and enduring songs
from a particular genre or style, such as those by Irving Berlin, Cole Porter, and Rodgers
and Hart.
Nat King Cole
Another well-loved standards singer was American balladeer
Matt Monroe
was an English singer who became one of the most popular entertainers
in the international music scene during the 1960s.
Rock and Roll
was a hugely popular song form in the United States during the late 1940’s
to the 1950’s.
Elvis Presley
The greatest exponent of the rock and roll style was the legendary _____________.
John Lennon
was an English musician,
singer, performer, songwriter and co-songwriter. He was
born and raised in Liverpool, England. He rose to
worldwide fame as a founder member of the rock band
The Beatles, which was considered as “the most
commercially successful band in the history of popular
Sir James Paul McCartney
is an English singer,
songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, co-writer, and composer.
Paul gained worldwide popularity and fame as a member of
The Beatles
Disco Music
pertained to rock music
that was more danceable, thus leading to the establishment
of venues for public dancing also called discos.
Hip hop music
pertained to rock music
that was more danceable, thus leading to the establishment
of venues for public dancing also called discos.
Alternative music
was an underground independent form of music that arose in the 1980’s.
It became widely popular in the 1990’s as a way to defy “mainstream” rock music.
Manila sound
The start of the ________ in the mid-1970s gave rise to songs using a colloquial
language called Taglish, a combination of Tagalog and English.