one musical line going on at a time (doesn’t mean one person singing, means in terms of music itself ? there is one layer)
-religious music of western catholic church
-sit and listen to monks worship at you…passive way of experiencing god. No participation needed. Somethinng you embraced
medieval modes
7 note-scale, complex theory that grew up around these modes (each 7 modes had subsets)
reciting tone
(boring, just one note)-one particular note repeated a bunch of times
-music is spiritual…reciting tone takes you to that place(holy place)

What did the cathedral look like?

Stone, incredibly resonant, lots of echo, works for simple and vocal music
– chant- oral equivalent of medieval architecture

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What is formulaic music?

-A clear set of simile rules, which enacted with a few constants you end up with something you recognize

What is Modulation?

-start with one tonic, go to another tonic, stability, instability, stability

Gregorian chant??

-Ametric music
-it does not have pulse, meter, or harmony


-song introduced polyphony
-more than one thing going on at a time
Medieval Organum?

-Tradition that is the first and most important kind of polyphony in the church Ex. Perotin -minks singing -3 voice polyphonic organum

-a polyphonic (many-voiced) setting, in certain specific styles, of Gregorian chant


Motet (classical music)?

Acapella (vocal without instruments) polyphonic, secular

Broque Rhythm??

-Music was now coming from other places besides church
-composer who had church jobs also created secular pieces
-rise of concert halls
-explosion ofminstrumental music

What is the idea of imitation?

One instrument plays a line…..another instrument plays the same line
Broque What is dualism(Dynamic Contrast)?
 pitting one section of the orchestra agasint the other
organizing feature is the dualism between at least 2 famalies (idea to contrast the firrerent instruments and to highlight that instrument)
-horns, strings, and trumpets (imitation…contrast) “having a conversation”

What type of musical genre was created during the Broque period?


What is a trio sonata ?

-2 people playing a melody (the chords), one person playing the baseline


What is an Ornament??

-the idea that you can take a basic melody and performer can improvise upon it and express it to make it sound more beautiful

opera- Julius Ceasar examplle?

-orchestra stopped playing when she started singing
-sings the text and carries the drama forward, adds ornamentation that gives the text the emotional content, richness and variety
Broque (basso) continuo
The basso continuo consists of the cello and the harpsichord.
figured bass
In any baroque piece, it is common to see figures basses, little numbers at the bottom of the stave, it indicates the chords that the basso continuo player must play.
baroque texture:
polyphony (counterpoint)- Late baroque music are often and predominantly polyphonic in texture : two more melodic lines compete
baroque orchestra
contained continuo instruments such as the theorbo and harpsichord. The baroque orchestra was reasonably small with a maximum of thirty people. The new instrumentation and orchestration soon spread to the rest of Europe.
a musical composition in which one or two themes are repeated or imitated by successively entering voices and contrapuntally developed in a continuous interweaving of the voice parts, becomes a conversation with three competing voices.
-development of the gedre fundamentally related to new musical language and performance…took a new way of playing for opera to develop (need for secular drama…”greek trasgedies” that led to this texture of music
-when music started to actually sound like music (a simple melody with other instruments below it)
1 a: a gradual increase; specifically: a gradual increase in volume of a musical passage
a gradual decrease in loudness or the musical direction
an extended musical composition in Western classical music, scored almost always for orchestra. A symphony usually contains at least one movement or episode composed according to the sonata principle. Many symphonies are tonal works in four movements with the first in sonata form, which is often described by music theorists as the structure of a “classical” symphony
Sonata form
Sonata form is a large-scale musical structure used widely since the middle of the 18th century (the early Classical period). While it is typically used in the first movement of multi-movement pieces, it is sometimes used in subsequent movements as well—particularly the final movement.
The Enlightenment and its effect on the conception of music
music became much simpler, more people able to play, Music was no longer to be just for the private amusement, wealthy, priest or privileged few. People started  incorporated a narrative theme and effects like contrast, subtlety, suspense and climax
was a twentieth century development, particularly popular in the period between the two World Wars, in which composers drew inspiration from music of the eighteenth century. Some of the inspiring canon was drawn as much from the Baroque period as the Classical period – for this reason, music which draws influence specifically from the Baroque is sometimes termed neo-baroque.