o Norman Petty
Memphis rockabilly echo effect producer for Clovis, NM— Also experimented with double tracking the voice and the lead guitar when he recorded Buddy Holly aging to achieve a fuller sound
o Charley Patton
Mississippi delta blues- “father of the delta blues style” –his raw vocal style and his percussive guitar accompaniment, often performed with a slide, were an immense influence on his contemporaries and on the next generation of rural delta – recorded prolifically
o Cosimo Matassa
New Orleans Rock. The co-owner and chief recording engineer of J&M Studio — performers like Little Richard and Roy Brown went to New Orleans specifically to record with Matassa and get the booming, deep bass sound— matassa’s formula for the New Orleans sound was to set the recording volumes at a good level for the band, turn on the tape recorder and let the band play. – Roy Brown was the first national hit to come out of Matassa’s studio
o Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller
Rhythms and Blues. Songwriters that wrote hound dog for Big Mama Thornton
o Alan Freed
Rhythm and blues. 1951 radio disc jockey—began a rhythm and blues radio station in Cleveland—named “ moondog’s rock and roll house party”—always played original versions and not covers—saw r and b as made by African Americans and directed to white teenage audience
o Phil and Leonard Chess
Memphis, rockabilly. Owned Chess studios
o Sam Phillips
Rockabilly-Elvis’s lead guitarist gave twangy country sound. Was used as sun studios guitarist for when they needed a country sounding guitar part
o Sol. Tom Parker
Memphis rockabilly. An entrepreneur that signed Elvis into a lucrative contract–RCA
o Jackie Brenston
Rhythm and blues. “first rock ‘n’ roll song”- rocket 88— first hit song recorded at sun studios in Memphis, .Tenn. and first single on the Chicago-based Chess label to hit number one in billboard’s rhythm and blues chart— also first automobile song setting a precedence for later songs
he was a member of Ike turner’s rhythm kings but song was credited to him and the delta cats. – song redone by bill Haley–he didn’t work out with his band and began drinking heavily and became derelict alcoholic and lived on streets of Memphis and had a heart attack in 1979 and died at Memphis V.A. hospital
o Big Mama Thornton
Rhythm and blues singer, self taught musician—strongly influenced by Bessie smith and Memphis Minnie McCoy—1940s played harmonica, sang and played drums for various places before settling down in Houston for her career—signed Peacock record—became featured singer of Johnny Otis — jerry Lieber and mike Stoller wrote hound dog for her—very large woman who could hold her own against men and women
o Eddie Cochran
Memphis/rockabilly. Was a major attraction in England and influenced many of the bands from there. Guitar style—gretsch semi solid guitar with a humbucking pick up. Was in a country duet with hank Cochran of no relation but they were the Cochran brothers
o Dave Bartholomew
Rhythm and blues. Played trumpet and was from a musical family. Put together the house band for matassa which gave J&M studios a unified sound
o Carl Perkins
Memphis/rockabilly. Sharecropping, guitar playing influenced by Grand Ole Opry — finger picking on electric guitar-using right hand to dampen the strings- using single string and double string bends- playing extended chords(ninths and thirteenths),- using syncopated rhythms- playing chord anticipations( reaching chord before others)—-started a band with his brothers and friend, played mostly country and western
 The Blues
– Jali
– William Christopher Handy-composer
– Bessie Smith
– Blind Lemon Jefferson
– Robert Johnson
– Aaron T-bone Walker
– Muddy Waters
– Meade”Lux” Lewis
 The Blues
o Call and respond
o Descending melodic line
o Use of blue notes
o Simple harmonic structure
o Strophic sing form
 Country and Western(southern country and southernwestern swing)
o Lead vocalist
o 2-4 back up singers
o Fiddles, acoustic guitar, acoustic bas, possible banjo or mandolin
Southern country
o Simple melodies
o Simple harmonies
o Simple rhythms- clear meters
o Use of two beat bass
o Little elaborate instrumental improvision
o Vocalist nasal and yodel
o Lyric- unrequited love or jilted lovers
Southern country
Jimmie Rodgers
– Hank Williams
-Carter Family
Southwestern country
o Adds drums, piano, steel guitar to string band
Southwestern country
bob Willis
 Boogie Woogie
o 8 quick pulses per measure
o Uses the barrelhouse rhythm(bouncy)
o Improvised right hand part
o Steady patter(ostinato) in left hand
o Uses 12 bar blues progression
o Complex polyrhythm between the two hands
 Boogie Woogie
– Meade “Lux” Lewis
 Rhythm and Blues
• Strophic song form
• Aab blues text form
• Melodic style
• 12 bar blues
o Boogie Woogie
o Ostinato bass line
o 8 pulse rhythm
o Barrelhouse Rhythm

 Rhythm and Blues
– Louis Jordan
– Roy Brown
– Jackie Brenston
– Big Mama Thornton
– Big Joe Turner
Rural Texas blues
• Single note bass string runs
• Arpeggiate chords
• Repeat melodic, rhythmic figures(riffs) on bass strings
• Alternate playing on bass and treble strings
• Single string melody fills
• Field holler singing style
Rural Texas blues
o Blind Lemon Jefferson
rural Mississippi delta blues
o Charley Patton
o Robert Johnson
rural Mississippi delta blues
• Frequent sliding from note to note
• Play slide guitar
• Waling style of singing(forlorn)
• Small melodic range
• Intricate polyrhythms
• Rhythmic fills rather than melodic
• Hard percussive picking style
urban Chicago blues
o Muddy Waters
urban Chicago blues
• Derived from Mississippi delta blues
• Use of slide guitar
• Harmonica is primary soloist
• Frequent slides between notes
• Frequent use of bent notes
• Frequent use of double stopped string, bent double stops
• Intricate rhythms patterns, polyrythms
• Single string tills
Northern band rock ‘n’ roll
o Bill Haley
Northern band rock ‘n’ roll
• A steady mechanical meter
• Fast tempos
• Quick and even surface rhythms
• Staccato, guitar chords on the backbeat
• A slapped walking bass line
• A boogie woogie ostinato(often)
-New Orleans dance rock
o Fats Domino
o Little Richard
-New Orleans dance rock
• An overall bass foundation
• Boogie woogie barrelhouse rhythm(ostinato)
• The basic beat is often subdivided into three quick pulses(triplet feel)
• Rhythms and meters are looser than the stiff, mechanical meters of bill Haley and the Memphis country rock style
• Surface rhythms vary from a lively, bouncy beat to a slow intense shuffle beat
• Lead vocalists featured prominently
• Rarely any back up singers
• Rhythm and blues band: lead vocal, piano, acoustic bass, drums, guitar, tenor saxophone
Memphis country rock
o Elvis Presley
o Carl Perkins
o Jerry Lee Lewis
o Eddie Cochran
o Roy Orbitson
o Gene Vincent
o Ricky Nelson
Memphis country rock
• Rhythm and blues elements
o Emphasis on back beat
o 12 bar blues format
• Country and western elements
o Instrumentation(string band)
o Strict rhythms
o Nasal singing style
o Pronunciation(accent)
• Generally fast tempos
• Propelled by slapped bass
• Looser sense of rhythm than Haley but stricter than New Orleans
• Recorded with natural studio echo
Chicago rock ‘n’ roll
Chuck Berry
-Bo Diddley
Buddy Holly
Chicago rock ‘n’ roll
• Time
o Generally fast temps
o Hard driving beat
o Even beat subdivisions
• Sound
o Guitar based bands
o Soloists are guitarist
o Instrumentation like R&B- lead vocal, electric guitar, bass, drums, piano, may use horns for back up riffing
o Generally no back up singers
Vocal group rock ‘n roll
– The Orioles
– Frankie Lyman and the teenagers
– The Coasters
-The Marvelettes
-The Shielles
Vocal group rock ‘n roll
• Lead vocal, high tenor voice
• Backing singers( a cappela)
• Close, barbershop harmony
• Low rumbling bass voice
• Band in background
• R&B band: piano, bass, drums, guitar, horns
• Focus on vocalist
• Doowop progression
Carl Perkins- guitar style
• Finger picking
• Right hand dampening
• Single string fills
• Double stops
• Bends and slides
• Syncopated rhythms
• Anticipated chords- he plays first
Elvis Presley—vocal and influences
• Rural Delta Blues-
o vocal delivery (growls, blue notes);
o sensual stage presence
• Urban Blues
• Country and western/ southern country
o Clear pronunciation
o Southern accent
o Sense of melodic phrasing
o Hiccup, stutter( from yodel)
• Gospel
o White- clear 4 part harmonies
o Black- Exuberant performing style(shouting, etc)
• Pop singers
o Crooning
o Wide vibrato
Chuck Berry—guitar style and influences
• Strong use of syncopated rhythms
• Use of repeated rhythmic, melodic figures(riffs)
• Counter accompaniment from boogie woogie accompaniment
• Use of double and multiple stops
• Use of bent notes, bent double stops
• Finger slides, single and double notes
• Cliche introductory figure
• Influences
o Vocal-Louis Jordan, big Joe turner(R&B), Muddy Waters(blues), Nat king Cole, Sinatra(pop), hank Williams(country)
o Guitar- Charlie Christian, Carl Hogan(jazz), Muddy Waters, T-bone Walker (blues)
Bo Diddley—guitar style and influences
• Influenced by Muddy Waters and john Lee Hooker
• Heavy use of reverb in amplifier
• Raw edged blues sound
• Chant like, rhythmic solos
• Rhythms based on juba rhythm(hambone)
– Buddy Holly—vocal style and influences
• Combines elements of Memphis and Chicago Rock ‘n’ roll style
• Background in country and western
• Vocal characteristics- hiccupping and changing vocal tine color mid- song