Quam pulchra es
[NAWM #32]
John Dunstable (CA. 1390-1453)
-1st 1/2 of the 15th century
1) Relative equality of 3 voices
2) Free structure based on text
3) Pervasive consonance
4) Sonoric/rhythmic variety
5) Strong tonal center
De plus en plus
[NAWM #33]
Binchois (Gilles de Bins) (CA. 1400-1460)
-CA. 1425
1) Elements reflect English influence
2) Cantus (top) moves quickly, slower tenor provides foundation, & contratenor fills in harmony
3) Imperfect time/major prolation (6/8), also hemiolas and syncopations
Conditor alme siderum
[NAWM #35]
Guillaume Du Fay (CA. 1397-1474)
-Hymn in fauxbourdon style
-CA. 1430
1) Derived from faburden (improvised English tradition)
2) Ornamented chant in cantus
3) Tenor against cantus in 6ths
4) Indicated yet unwritten 3rd voice
Se la face ay pale
[NAWM #36a]
Guillaume Du Fay (CA. 1397-1474)
1) Displays changes in composer’s style
2) Composed freely to suit the text
3) Blends French, English, and Italian styles, including syncopation, pervasive consonance & equality of all 3 voices, and smooth/conjunct melodies
Missa Se la face ay pale: Gloria
[NAWM #36b]
Guillaume Du Fay (CA. 1397-1474)
-Cantus-firmus mass
-CA. 1450s
1) 4-voices with cantus firmus in tenor
2) 3X slower than the original song
3) Tenor is metered differently at first
4) Controlled consonance/dissonance
Miss De plus en plus: Agnus Dei
[NAWM #37]
Jean De Ockeghem (CA. 1420-1497)
-Cantus-firmus mass
-2nd 1/2 of the 15th century
1) 4 voices with cantus firmus in tenor, containing changed rhythms and ornamented passages
2) Strong modal center of ‘G’
3) Suspensions created by syncopations at cadences, creating dissonance
4) French stylistic preference evident
Innsbruck, ich muss dich lassen
[NAWM #38]
Henricus Isaac (CA. 1450-1517)
-CA. 1500
1) 4 voices with the melody in the cantus (soprano), supported by homophony
2) Poem lines are individually phrased and separated by a rest
3) Each line ends with suspensions leading to cadences that indicate modal
Ave Maria…virgo serena
[NAWM #39]
Josquin Des Prez (CA. 1450-1521)
-CA. 1484-1485
1) Musical form dictated by poetic form
2) Each section cadences on ‘C’, the tonal center of the HypoIonian mode
3) 4 voices with 3 points of imitation (top to bottom) in first section
4) “Drive to the cadence” created by unison and faster rhythmic values
Missa Pange lingua: Kyrie/Excerpt of Credo
[NAWM #40]
Josquin Des Prez (CA. 1450-1521)
-Paraphrase mass
-CA. 1515-1520
1) Places the chant in all 4 voices rather than in one and makes imitation the primary structural device
2) Each pair of hymn phrases (1/2, 3/4, & 5/6) are treated differently in all 3 movements of the Kyrie
3) Credo excerpts demonstrate composer’s attention to text expression (“word-painting”)
Ein’ feste Burg
[NAWM #42c]
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
1) Luther regarded music as tool for spreading faith, especially chorales, which gave everyone a role in church music and could also be sung at home
2) Monophonic melody reinforces biblical image of strength
3) Ionian mode transposed a 4th up to F
4) Rhythm displays Luther’s attention to proper text setting
Ein’ feste Burg (setting for 4 voices)
[NAWM #42d]
Johann Walter (1496-1570)
1) Placed unaltered tune in the tenor, surrounded by free counterpoint in the other 3 voices (in the tradition of the German Lied)
2) Phrase endings in the tenor often overlapped by one or more voices
3) Cadence ending the 1st section contains a lowered 7th (Eb) triad (a commmon 16th-century formula)
Pope Marcellus Mass: Credo/Agnus Dei I
[NAWM #45]
Giovanni Pierluigi Da Palestrina
-CA. 1560
1) Unlike other masses, this is not based on pre-existing music
2) Sets the text very clearly, but reserves all 6 voices for climactic or significant points
3) Applied the “old-fashioned” sound of fauxbourdon to great effect, and used syncopation to stress accented syllables (no 2 measures have the same rhythm)
4) Agnus Dei I opening is sung 9 times
5) Typically, melodies are stepwise and harmonies are consonant
O magnum mysterium
[NAWM #46a]
Tomas Luis De Victoria (1548-1611)
-CA. 1570
1) Exemplifies composer’s style, including paired imitation in the 4 voices
2) Leaps always followed by stepwise motion, capturing the grand and mysterious mood (respectively)
3) In HypoDorian transposed up a 4th to ‘G’, chromatic fluctuations lend the music color and fluidity (including a “Picardy 3rd”)
Missa O magnum mysterium: Kyrie
[NAWM #46b]
Tomas Luis De Victoria (1548-1611)
-Imitation mass
-CA. 1580s
1) “Imitation” refers to the relation of the mass to the work it imitates (“model”)
2) It also describes the voice relation, as in paraphrase masses
3) Some historians refer to these as “model” or “parody” masses
Io non compro piu speranza
[NAWM #49]
Marco Cara (CA. 1465-1525)
-CA. 1500
1) Poetic text suggests it is better to live with no hope than to suffer unrequited love, taking a cynical and humorous stance on the subject
2) Lute notation contains a barline every 4 beats, but the music is felt in a 6 pulse dance rhythm, often utilizing the hemiolas
3) Scored for voice with lute accompaniment with many root-position triads in the harmony
Il bianco e dolce cigno
[NAWM #50]
Jacques Arcadelt (CA. 1507-1568)
-CA. 1538
1) This poem freely alternates 7- and 11-syllable lines and contains a free rhyme scheme (abb cdd ee ff)
2) Irony exists in the text in that sex is represented by a “little death”
3) Setting is mostly homophonic in the 4 voices with clearly marked rhythms, and is mostly through-composed
Solo e pensoso
[NAWM #52]
Luca Marenzio (1553-1599)
1) Exercises text painting through ascending chromaticism in the top of 5 voices(extended longer than any previously) as well as other techniques
2) Clearly in the mode of G
“Io parto” e non piu dissi
[NAWM #53]
Carlo Gesualdo (CA. 1561-1613)
-CA. 1600
1) Exemplifies use of contrast between chromatic & diatonic, dissonant & consonant, homophonic & imitative, etc.
2) Each segment of text receives individual treatment in 5-voice texture
3) Music of the penultimate line paints 3 images: of death, renewed life, and exhaustion
4) Although frequently chromatic, it is clearly in Phrygian mode
Tant que vivray
[NAWM #54]
Claudin De Sermisy (CA. 1490-1562)
-CA. 1527
1) Represents a new type of chanson in this era through repetitive form, lighthearted text, lively rhythms, and both syllabic & homophonic textures
2) AAB form in 4-voice texture
3) Not word-painting, but captures the general spirit of the poem
My bonny lass she smileth
[NAWM #56]
Thomas Morley (1557/8-1602)
-CA. 1595
1) The poem is light & witty, set in 5 voices in an AABB form
2) Lack of key signature and F-sharps illustrate the mode of ‘G’ Mixolydian
3) This type of music was mainly written for the performers to enjoy
As Vesta was
[NAWM #57]
Thomas Weelkes (CA. 1573-1623)
-CA. 1601
1) Praises the queen, comparing her to Greek deities Vesta and Diana
2) Textbook example of word-painting
3) The last motive, the setting of “Long live fair Oriana,” enters 49 times varied in all 6 voices
Flow, my tears
[NAWM #58]
John Dowland (1563-1626)
-Air or lute song
-CA. 1600
1) Vocal line, accompanied by lute, contains topmost melody
2) Opening motive, a word-painting stepwise descent through a 4th, becomes the basis for the piece
3) HypoAeolian mode in AABBCC form