(Dances from) Danseries a 4 parties, second livre
(NAWM #59)
Pierre Attaingnant [PUBLISHER]
-CA. 1547
-Basse danse & Branle gay
1) Contains quaternions in 3/4, with long note in 2+ voices on every 8th beat, creating hemiola
2) Binary form, which later led to other standard forms of 18th century
3) Branle gay in ABA’ form, sung to “Que je chatoulle ta fossette”
4) Players decide instrumentation; percussion not notated, but used some
Pavana Lachrymae
(NAWM #61)
William Byrd (CA. 1540-1623)
-Pavane variations
-CA. 1600
1) Keyboard variation of “Lachrimae” included in Fitzwilliam Virginal Book
2) Transposed up 4th with equal rhythmic values
3) 1st variant similar to original, unlike 2nd variant (labeled “Rep.”)
4) Virginal (harpsichord) was preferred instrument, with written and ornamental embellishments in music
Canzon septimi toni a 8, from Sacrae symphoniae
(NAWM #62)
Giovanni Gabrieli (CA. 1555-1612)
-Ensemble canzona
-CA. 1597
1) Divided into 1st & 2nd choir (SATB ranges), each accompanied by organ
2) G Mixolydian, transparent texture, rhythmic motives, & moves quickly
3) ABCBDBE form features a refrain (B) in triple meter, unlike the duple meter of whole piece
4) Unspecified instrumentation, but with specified clefs indicating range
5) Features “basso continuo” & “basso seguente”
Cruda Amarilli
(NAWM #63)
Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643)
-Late 1590s
1) Breaks contrapuntal rules with striking dissonances to reflect text
2) Typifies Monteverdi’s style of polyphonic madrigals
3) Published for 5 voices with optional basso continuo, making piece flexible
Vedro ‘l mio sol
(NAWM #64)
Giulio Caccini (CA. 1550-1618)
-Solo madrigal
-CA. 1590
1) Thorough-composed rather than strophic, favoring repetition
2) Each line of poetry is separate phrase ending with cadence
3) Simple chordal accompaniment helped clarify text & melody
4) Accompanied by figured bass
Le musiche sopra l’Euridice: Excerpts
(NAWM #65)
Jacopo Peri (1561-1633)
1) 3 movements: Prologue, Aria, & Dialogue in Recitative
2) Earliest opera to survive in a complete score
3) Greek plot centers on power of music, rewritten with happy ending
4) Final excerpt is example of “recitar cantando” (recitative), crucial to new operas & allegedly pioneered by Peri
L’Orfeo: Excerpt from Act II
(NAWM #66)
Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643)
1) Built on Peri’s opera, creating a more satisfying form
2) Exhibits Monteverdi’s use of varied forms & styles for dramatic purposes
3) Explicit instrumentation
L’incoronazione di Poppea: Act I, Scene 3
(NAWM #67)
Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643)
1) Various styles, representing cycling moods of characters (aria, recitative, & arioso) determined by content
2) Smaller & less varied instrumentation used for public opera
3) Nero sung by castrato
Lagrime mie
(NAWM #69)
Barbara Strozzi (1619-1677)
1) Text is mostly in madrigal-type verse with 7 & 11 syllable lines
2) Divides free-form verse into content-oriented sections
3) Demonstrates mastery in applying music to express genre’s vocabulary
4) Scored for solo voice with continuo
O quam tu pulchra es
(NAWM #70)
Alessandro Grandi (1586-1630)
-Solo motet (sacred concerto)
-CA. 1625
1) Text drawn from Song of Songs in Bible, a popular textual source
2) Incorporates elements from recitative, madrigal, & aria
3) Use of new operatic and chamber styles in motets was novel
Historia di Jephte: Excerpt
(NAWM #71)
Giacomo Carissimi (1605-1674)
-CA. 1648
1) Genre developed as settings of sacred Latin or Italian text, performed in oratories (church halls) and resembling operas
2) Text emphasizes Lenten themes
3) Recitative’s dissonance recalls Florentine opera
4) Harmony & melody express emotional intensity
5) Closes with 6-voice chorus, lamenting through bass line descension
O lieber Herre Gott, SWV 287, from Kleine geistliche Konzerte I
(NAWM #72)
Heinrich Schutz (1585-1672)
-Sacred concerto
-CA. 1636
1) Duet uses contrasts between various styles to convey text
2) Departure from traditional counterpoint exemplifies stile moderno
3) Text determines compositional style
Saul, was verfolgst du mich, SWV 415, from Symphoniae sacrae III
(NAWM #73)
Heinrich Schutz (1585-1672)
-Sacred concerto
-CA. 1650
1) Text drawn from Paul’s encounter with Christ on the road to Damascus
2) Set for 6 solo voices (favoriti), 2 violins & 4-voice choirs, and continuo
3) Exemplifies mastery at text depiction
Toccata No. 3
(NAWM #74)
Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643)
-CA. 1615, REV. 1637
1) Tempo and ornamentation are flexible
2) Italian for ‘touched’, toccatas are improvisatory and exploratory
3) Unfolds as a series of brief phrases
4) Transposed Dorian mode on G
(Ricercare after the Credo from) Mass for the Madonna, in Fiori musicali
(NAWM #75)
Girolami Frescobaldi (1583-1643)
-CA. 1635
1) Part of 3 organ masses, this is an imitative composition on development of a single subject
2) In G Dorian with an optional fermata ending in the middle of the piece
3) Organ tuned in mean-tone temperament
Sonata IV per il violino per sonar con due corde
(NAWM #76)
Biagio Marini (1594-1663)
-Sonata for violin and continuo
-CA. 1626
1) Takes advantage of violin idioms while borrowing from vocal monody
2) Name derived from use of double stops
3) In A Aeolian mode
4) Presents a series of contrasting sections, distinguished by varied moods, meters, and tempos