Congregational Singing
Lutheran reform of Roman Catholic practice; combined choir and clergy with congregational participation instead of keeping them separate as in the Catholic liturgy
Musical foundation of the Lutheran liturgy; originally unison melodies sung by the congregation; sung in German; adaption of Gregorian chant/existing German devotional songs, contrafactum and entirely new compositions; became the basis for Lutheran polyphonic composition
secular songs with new sacred words; one of the chorale music sources
Chorale motet
chorale used as a cantus-firmus; chorale in the tenor line with polyphony in the surrounding voices
Metrical psalm
altered strophic and rhymed translations of psalms in the vernacular; monophonic according to Calvanism, it was the only acceptable music amongst all “mystical” elements of Roman Catholic ritual, including polyphony.
Anglican motet; music of the Elizabethan church of England during the Protestant Reformation; Byrd’s anthem featured “constant” imitation with very few homophonic passages as well and imitative polyphony.
most widely printed secular music genre of the 16th century; included music with text; erotic themes focused on love,sex, humor, violence; through-composed music; text painting dominates – ascending scales, half-steps/minor thirds, solo texture, dramatic key shifts, stretto entrances; Gesualdo introduced intense musical expression of text through chromaticism and texture in his madrigals
Versi sciolti
blank verse; found in Peri’s recitar cantando “L’Euridice” in 1600 and in Strozzi’s cantata “Largime mie” in 1650 in the recitatice and ariosos
Italian homophonic songs; strophic with simple harmonies; among the first printed secular vocal compositions; published 1504
meter with 8 syllables or lines; lends itself to hemiola; characteristic of Cara’s frottola and Monteverdi’s opera Orfeo
arrangements of vocal pieces using tablature (notatino of hand and finger placement) one of the first instrumental music publicatinos; by Petrucci for the lute in Venice, 1507
Functional v. Stylized dances
F: ensemble dances suitible for socail dancing S: solo dances, emjoyment often in binary or ternary form. (AABB or AABBCC)
ensemble dance of Italian origin in 3 part form. stately duple meter
Ensemble dance of Italian origin in 3 part form, lively and in triple meter.
Italian pholyphonic instrumental work; considered an abstract/ independent work int he 16th century
Single-impression pringing
music printing by attaingnant; 3 steps in 1- typeset includes staff, notation, and syllables; cheaper and not as fancy as petrucci’s prints
triple-impression printing
music printing by Petrucci the first printed polyphonic moveable type; step 1 – staff, step 2 – notation, step 3 – words; expensive
cori spezzati
divided choirs; often placed at various places in the church; features echo effects, call and answer, dialogue; found in Gabrielli’s canzona
Prima prattica
music follows rules; features voice leading, controlled dissonance
seconda prattica
music follows text; features rule-defying dissonance, chromaticism
basso continuo
part of the New Music, bass is written, but harmony is to be improvised; bass line produced and repeated continuously
Figured bass
provided by caccini in the New music type of musical shorthand; a given bass line with accompanying numbers, which stand for intervals found above the written bass note
accompanied solo singing in Music Drama, introduced by Peri and Caccini; aria, solo madrigal, reticular cantando
part of the New Music, a type of monody in Music Drama; strophic song; tuneful with moving basses
part of the New Music a type of monody in Music Drama a mixture of reciative and aria style
Recitar Cantando
sung speech; imitating the inflection and rhythm of speech; Peri’s contribution to New Music a type of monody in Music Drama
refrains; present in Monteverdi’s aria where verse were interspersed with instrumental ritornelli; Vivaldi concerto
Basso ostinato
repeating the bass of a popular dance while the melody aboce changes found in 17th century Italian popular style
a common ostinato bass that includes a descending tetrachord; major-love, minor-pain and suffering
a common ostinato bass with Spanish or New World origins
secular composition for solo voice and basso continuo with alternation sections of aria, arioso and recitative; a predominant genre of mid-17th century Italian vocal music; a mixture of lyric and narrative text; text painting still dominates
1650 with Carrismi; sacred Italian vocal music; denotes a dramatic religious piece; similar to opera – it contains recitative, aria/duet, chorus, instrumental, unlie opera – it has no staging, often includes a narrator and a greater role of chorus
Idiomatic V. Emulative
I:music that fits an instrument E:music that emulates another instrument; musical styles that combined to form Italian instrumental music
to touch, common 17th century instrumental genre; sectional improvisatory piece for keyboard; each section based on a new motive
“to search for”; common 17th century instrumental genre; imitative piece for keyboard; based on a single theme
to sound or play; common 17th century instrumental genre; generic instrumental piece; often for 1-2 melody instruments and Basso Continuo sectional
Tragedie en musique
Jean-Baptiste Lully’s development of a uniquely French opera style; hybrid of drmam, music and ballet, sund in French; 5 acts; often adaptations of classical mythology
music of the tragedie en musique tradition; grand music accompany the king entering the theatre before the opera
music of the tragedie en musique traditionl french recit is simpler measured and more tuneful than Itlaian
music of the tragedie en musique tradition
Trio sonata da camera/chiesa
common instrumental music genre in Italy after 1660 two insturments and basso continue
Solo concerto
common instrumental music genre in Italy after 1690 orchestra v. solosist
Concerto grosso
common insturmental music genre in Italy after 1680 orchestra v. soloists
Ritornello form
full orchestra plays ritornelli (thematically-related passages) soloist plays episodes. Pillars of the form