Inclusion of folk songs, dances, legends, and other national material in a composition to associate it with the composer’s homeland; characteristic of romantic music.
Use of melodies, rhythms, or instruments that suggest foreign lands; common in romantic music
Explanatory comments specifying the story, scene, or idea associated with program music
Chromatic Harmony
use of chords containing tones not found in the prevailing major or minor scale but included in the chromatic scale
Slight holding back or pressing forward of tempo to intensify the expression of the music
Thematic Transformation
Alteration of the character of a theme by means of changes in dynamics, orchestration, or rhythm, when it returns in a later movement or section
Concluding section; the section at the end of an art song that sums up the mood, played by the piano or orchestra without voice
Strophic Form
Vocal form in which the same music is repeated for each stanza of a poem
Through-Composed Form
Vocal form in where there is new music for each stanza of a poem.
Modified Strophic Form
Form in which two or more stanzas or poetry are set to the same music while other stanzas have new music; found in art songs
Absolute Music
Instrumental music having No intended association with a story, poem, idea, or scene; non program music.
Idee Fixe
Single melody used in several movements of a long work to represent a recurring idea.
Short musical idea associated with a person, object, or thought, characteristic or the operas of Wagner.
Program Music
Instrumental music associated with a story, poem, idea, or scene, often found in the romantic period.
Extended composition for instrumental soloist and orchestra, usually in three movements.
Orchestral composition, usually in four movements, typically lasting between 20 and 45 minutes, exploiting the expanded range of tone color and dynamics of the orchestra.
Drama that is sung to orchestral accompaniment, usually a large-scale composition employing vocal soloists, chorus, orchestra, costumes and scenery.
Art Song
Setting of a poem for solo voice and piano, translating the poem’s mood and imagery into music, coming in the romantic period.
Song Cycle
Group of Art Songs unified by a story line that runs though their poems, or by musical ideas linking the songs.
A term often used during the nineteenth century for short, lyrical pieces for piano.
In French: night piece; a composition, usually slow, lyrical, and intimate in character, often for solo piano.
In French: Study; A piece designed to help a performer master specific technical difficulties.
Composition in triple meter with a stately character, often for piano solo; originally a Polish court dance.
Symphonic Poem (Tone Poem)
Programmatic composition for orchestra in one movement, which may have a traditional form or an original, irregular form.
Program Symphony
Symphony related to a story, idea, or scene, in which each movement usually has a descriptive title.
Concert overture
Concert overture – single movement orchestral piece with program. This would be paired with Felix Mendelssohn
Incidental Music
Music intended to be performed before and during a play, setting the mood for the drama.
Franz Schubert
Robert Schumann
Clara Schumann
Romance in E Flat Minor for Piano
Symphonie fantastique
Nocturne in E Flat Major
Etude in C Minor
Polonaise in A Flat Major
La Boheme
Transcendental Etude
Die Walkure (The Valkyrie)
Romantic Era Traits
Individuality of Style
Expressive Aims and Subjects
Nationalism and Exoticism
Program Music
Expressive Tone Color
Colorful Harmony
Expanded Range of Dynamics, Pitch and Tempo
Form: Miniature and Monumental