When were the dark ages of the Medieval era?
500 AD to 1000 AD
What progress was made in the Middle Ages?
Mechanical Mills
Rise of Trade Guilds (Bourgeoisie)
Gradual decline of Feudalism
Music Notation
What were the dominant forces during the Medieval era?
The Church and Feudalism
What is the church’s role during the Medieval era?
an important role in art and preserving knowledge of the ancient world.
What are the musical settings of worship?
Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei
What is a Chant?
Monophonic, rhythmically free, usually religious
What were the music notations developed in the church?
neumes and staff
Who was Guide of Arrezo?
first music theorist in the Middle Ages to discuss music notation on a staff – Invented solfeggio (do re mi)
What is an organum?
Grows from chant, earliest form of polyphony, use of perfect intervals, Hocet
Rhythmic, secular based text
Polyphonic, based on a cantus firmus, addition of secular text
What are Troubadours (minstrels)?
Itinerant (on the road) medieval musicians who sing about chivalry, Courtly Love
Ars Nova
(The New Art) 14th cen period of musical complexity.
A song.
Who was Guillaume de Machaut?
Dominant composer of the ars nova.
Who was Philippe de Vitry?
medieval composer, theoretician, who created the term “Ars Nova”
Formes Fixes
fixed forms that set the template for medival songs
What are three characteristics of the Renaissance era?
The golden age of “a cappella” singing
Imitation and polyphonic texture the norm
Gradual increased importance of purely instrumental and secular music
moving toward less complexity, more understandable church music. Renassance
championed by Martin Luther, perfected by Bach Renaissance
Polphonic, 3 or 4 voice, set to secular poetry Renaissance
Whole Consort
the complete family of instrument
Broken Consort
An ensemble of full range of mixed instruments
What types of chants are there?
Gregorian, Melismatic, Syllabi
lines added to the cantus firmus in a motet
Ars Antiqua
Old Art
What are the types of Formes fixes?
ballade, virelai, rondeau.