Urban folk music
Urban folk music drew from traditional folk in that it was meant “for the people” )or folk), was not pop or commercialized, and sometimes was intentionally unpolished. It differed because more artists were professionals and songs were credited to specific songwriters. Artists like Bob Dylan fused folk with rock, creating folk rock, and introduced electric guitars.

Ex. Blowing in the Wind by bob Dylan 1963

Four on the floor
A musical rhythm pattern characterized by a bass (kick) drum playing uniformly on every note. The term was widely used during the disco era and referred to a bass drum that sat directly on the floor, played by a drummer, who stamped on the pedal in 4/4 time.
Ex: Donna Summer “Bad Girls” (1979)
Hip hop
set of musical and cultural practices that arose in the African-American community in New York in the 1970’s, with influences from the Latino and Caribbean communities
Ex. “Rapper’s Delight” – Sugarhill Gang 1979
break (as related to hip-hop
a short percussion interlude or solo within a song- often funk or soul. People would dance during the break to these songs, so DJs decided they would loop these popular sections. This is where the term “break dancers” derives from.
Ex. “Good Times” –Chic 1979
DJ (as related to hip-hop) –
a person who selects, plays, and creates music with multiple turntables, often to back up one or more MC’s. Early hip-hop DJs like Kool Herc experimented with methods of prolonging the breaks in songs by “looping” (using two turntables) or picking up the needle on the turntable and moving it back quickly (“the needle drop”)
Ex. “Rapper’s Delight” – Sugarhill Gang 1979
can refer specifically to break dancers or anyone devoted to hio-hop culture. Break-dancing got its name because some people would dance during the breaks of songs.
Ex. “Rapper’s Delight” –Sugarhill Gang 1979
a subgenre of rock music that evolved in the U.S. and England in the mid 1970’s. Characterized by short, fast songs with stripped down textures and raw textures and raw timbres with angry, sometimes political lyrics. Embodied DIY ethic.
Ex. “Blitzkrieg Bop” (1976) The Ramones
-“ Do it yourself”—ethic that valued raw emotion and energy over the technique and professionalism of pop. Anybody could play the guitar, drums, or sing. Virtuosity not important.
Ex. “Blitzkrieg Bop” (1976) The Ramones
popular music style that emerged (along with new wave) in the early 1980s in Englad nad the US in the wake of punk. Took the independent spirit and raw sound of punk but expanded its musical resources. More artsy, complex, and experimental than punk, often more lyrical
Ex. “Love Will TEar Us Apart” Joy Division 1980
New Wave
Popular music sytle that emerged (along with post-punk) in the early 198’s in England and the U.S. Takes the irreverence and angularity of punk but makes itmore upbeat and pop oriented. The use of synthesizer is particularly important. “Synth pop” sometimes used as a near synonym to new wave.
Ex. Sweet Dreams by the Eurythmics (1983)
Concept Album
an album in which all songs contribute to a unified theme or idea
o Example: The Beatles album, “Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band” 1967
Moog Synthesizer
may refer to any number of analog synthesizers designed by Dr. Robert Moog or manufactured by Moog Music, and is commonly used as a generic term for analog and digital music synthesizers.
o Example: “Sweet Dreams” Eurthymics 1983
great skill or technique shown by somebody who excels at doing something, especially performing music. The defining element of virtuosity is the performance ability of the musician in question, who is capable of displaying feats of skill well above the average performer. “…a virtuoso was, originally, a highly accomplished musician, but by the nineteenth century the term had become restricted to performers, both vocal and instrumental, whose technical accomplishments were so pronounced as to dazzle the public.”

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Yes – “Roundabout” -1972

Monterey Pop Festival
1967 — Monterey was the first widely-promoted and heavily-attended rock festival, attracting an estimated 6,000 total attendees with to 10,000 people present at the event’s peak at midnight on Sunday. It was notable as hosting the first major American appearances by Jimi Hendrix and The Who, as well as the first major public performances of Janis Joplin and Otis Redding. Can be seen as template for Woodstock
Altamount Free Concert
1969–put on by Rolling Stones; someone practically murdered in front of stage; Hell’s angels served as security.

Woodstock west. cali. 300,000 attended. Jeff aiplane

1969 concert held in New York Peace & Love & Music “After the concert, Max Yasgur, who owned the site of the event, saw it as a victory of peace and love. He spoke of how nearly half a million people filled with possibilities of disaster, riot, looting, and catastrophe spent the three days with music and peace on their minds.”
Southern Rock
a style of blues; influenced rock heard from a variety of groups coming out of the southern US in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Driven by electric guitar and lyrics often make reference to the south.
Example: Lynyrd Skynard- “Sweet Home Alabama”
Country Rock
a style of rock arising in the late 1960s and early 1970s that drew upon the sounds and themes of country music.
Example: The Eagles- Take it Easy”
a form of American dance music from the late 1960s and the 1970s that brought together elements of jazz, R&B, and soul. Incorporates groove (repeating block of music made of short interlocking rhythms played by mult. Instruments).
Example: James Brown- “Papa’s Got a Brand New Bag”
A repeating block of music made up of short interlocking rhythms played by multiple instruments. Accompanied by a rough timbre, groove often exhibits no clear form and is created by a musical mosaic of combined instruments. Term is mainly used in the context of funk, rock, and soul.
Ex: James Brown “Papa’s Got a Brand New Bag” (1965)
A cultural tendency that sees science fiction as a narrative for the African American experience. It’s a guideline for escaping the realities of a harsh and hostile alien environment.
Ex: Parliament “Give Up the Funk” (1979) – During tours, George Clinton’s alter ego, Dr. Funkenstein, would land on smoky stage via spaceship
A type of dance music that arose in New York in the early 70’s, peak of popularity between 1975-80. Emerged in the gay nightclubs of lower Manhattan before going mainstream. Name comes from French “Discotheque”- nightclub where people dance to recordings rather than live music – and reveals the centrality of recordings and the DJ. Draws upon funk, soul, and salsa, often combining strings and simple lyrical vocals with a heavy, constant beat and active bass line.
Ex: Chic “Good Times” (1979)
A style of urban Jamaican popular music that developed in the late 1960’s. It’s a synthesis of American R&B, African and Jamaican folk music, and ska, an earlier Jamaican genre. Its style is characterized by constant offbeat rhythmic patterns, chanted vocals, and socially aware lyrics, often expressing the ideals of the Rastafari.
Ex: Bob Marley and the Wailers “Get Up, Stand Up” (1973)
This movement encompasses themes such as the spiritual use of cannabis, colloquially known as marijuana, and the rejection of western society (called Babylon, which literally means “confusion”). It is also based on various Afrocentric social and political aspirations, The connection between the movement and music has become well known, due to reggae musicians like Bob Marley and Peter Tosh, whose lyrical themes support peace, cannabis use, and reject many political ideals of Western society.
Ex: Bob Marley and the Wailers “Get Up, Stand Up” (1973)
Saturday Night Fever
It’s a 1977 coming of age film starring a young John Travolta, as Tony Manero. His weekend visits to Brooklyn discotheque with dance partner and eventual girlfriend allow him to escape the reality of an unsupportive home life and dead-end job, and enter a world of his own. The movie significantly popularized disco music, skyrocketing the fame of The Bee Gees.
Ex: The Bee Gees “Stayin’ Alive” (1977)
Newport Folk Festival
The Newport Folk Festival was founded in 1959 by Theodore Bikel, Oscar Brand, Pete Seeger and George Wein, founder of the already-well-established Newport Jazz Festival, and his partner, Albert Grossman. The Festival is renowned for introducing a number of performers who went on to become major stars, most notably Joan Baez (who appeared as an unannounced guest of Bob Gibson in 1959), and Bob Dylan (managed by Grossman), whose first Newport appearance in 1963 is generally regarded as his premiere national performance. Dylan became the artist most famously (and infamously) associated with the festival. In 1963 and 1964, Dylan was accompanied by Joan Baez.The festival draws on folk music in a wide and loosened sense. For instance, in the 1960s there were famous performances by Johnny Cash and Howlin’ Wolf, artists usually described as representing country music and blues respectively. The festival was associated with the 1960s Blues Revival, where artists “lost” since the 1940s (e.g. Delta blues singers) were “rediscovered”.
Containment was a United States policy using military, economic, and diplomatic strategies to temper the spread of Communism, enhance America’s security and influence abroad, and prevent a “domino effect”.
Domino effect
The domino theory was a foreign policy theory during the 1950s to 1980s, promoted at times by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. The domino effect suggests that some change, small in itself, will cause a similar change nearby, which then will cause another similar change, and so on in linear sequence, by analogy to a falling row of dominoes standing on end
of, characterized by, or generating hallucinations, distortions or perception or altered states of awareness
Psychedelic music
music that seeks to emulate or generate the experience of psychadelia
Characteristics: absurd imagery, sensory confusion, drug allusions, mysticism
Music: Non-rock/erotic instruments (sitar, tambourine, flute)
Improvisatory, chaotic, unstructured passges
Studio effects-backward sounds and panning
Unusual visual effects
Ex. The Beatles “tomorrow never knows”
Jefferson Airplane (white rabbit)—weird scene from alice in wonderland
Jimi Hendrix (purple haze)- kissing the sky. Doesn’t know if he is up or down, or if it is “tomorrow or just the end of time “
Vietnam War
•Hostilities began before that, with vietnam struggling to gain independence from france
•U.s. involvement concentrated between 1965 and 1969. Us troops gone by 1973, war over in 1975
•Vietnam divided into North and South. North was communist, south vietnam was not.
•North vietnam (along with communist trained south vietnamese rebels, vietcong) tried to take over south vietnam
•U.S. steps in, fights on the side of the non-communist south vietnam for efforts of containment( stop the spreading like a virus against the “domino effect”)
•War witnessed from afar at home “TV War”
•Generated huge amounts of controversy and protests at home. Though early on a “silent” majority supported the war.
•US Casualties 58,000 dead
•N Vietnamese Casualties- 500,000 to 1 million dead
•S Vietnamese Casualties- 1 million dead
•Tom Paxton “Lyndon Johnson Told the Nation”
•Johnny Wright “Hello Vietnam”
•Barry Sadler “Ballad of the Green Berets”