Artist: Charlie Parker
Genre: Bebop

-Parker & Gillespie trading bars
-32 measure choruses: extended improv
-1st chorus: saxophone
-2nd chorus: drum solo
-Rhythm section more free
-Conclusion: restatement of head
-No real tune, perceived as being too technical/esoteric

Take the A Train
Artist: Ella Fitzgerald
Genre: Big Band

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-Trumpets “Trading Bars”
-Call % response between vocals and band
-Vocals: Scat singing, stretching of words
-Repeat of verses: improvisation and scatting
-Trumpet solo: Dizzy Gillespie
-Conclusion: return to opening

Wildwood Flower
Artist: Carter
Genre: Country Ballad?

-Clear, nasal vocals (typical of Anglo style)
-Strophic Choruses
-Instrumental breaks

Blue Yodel, No. 11
Artist: Jimmie Rodgers
Genre: Country

-Poetic form of blues (a a b)
-Strophic Choruses
-Punctuated by yodels
-Anglo vocal style
-Guitar accompaniment

Mule Skinner Blues (version 2)
Artist: Bill Monroe
Genre: Country (Bluegrass)

-String band ensemble
-Fast Tempo
-Nasal Vocal Style
-Collective Improvisation

Hound Dog
Artist: Big Mama Thornton
Genre: ?

-Vocals: deep and raspy
-Electric guitar
-Simple drum and hand-clapping
-Relaxed tempo
-Basic structure of 12 bar blues

All of Me (1)
Artist: Russ Columbo
Genre: Ballad (in the crooning style)

-Love song
-Emphasis on vocal nuances
-No improvisation, no scat singing, no embellishment of melody (contrast with jazz singer)

All of Me (2)
Arist: Billie Holliday
Genre: Ballad (in the jazz singing style)

-Contrast with Russ Columbo’s version
-Song as vehicle for voice and personal expression
Rhythm varies
-Blues inflection on melody
-Jazz-singing (as opposed to crooning)

Nancy (with the laughing face)
Artist: Frank Sinatra

-Illustrates fusion of crooning style and nuance of jazz
-Accompanied by orchestra (violins, harp, flute)
-Vocal phrasing and rhythm: indicative of jazz singer
-Middle road between crooner and jazz singer

Rhapsody in Blue
Artist: George Gershwin

-Gershwin: “indicative of all American music”
-4 main sections: piano solos
-Influence of all genres in melodies: jazz, blues, tin pan alley
-Neither exclusively classical nor jazz
-Demonstrated a middle ground between two traditions (classical music and pop music)

Can’t Help Lovin’ Dat Man
Artist: Kern and Hammerstein
Genre: American Musical

-Sung by Julie (advising Magnolia)
-Lyrics in style of blues (reflection of race)
-Bent and emphasized notes
-Indicative of her racial identity

Ain’t That a Shame
Artist: Fats Domino
Genre: R&B

-Rhythm and Blues instrumentation: vocal, piano, guitar, sax, bass, drums
-12 bar blue verses
-Refrain quotes title: HOOK
-Instrumental break: sax solo
-1st and 3rd verse repeat

Johnny B Goode
Artist: Chuck Berry
Genre: Rock and Roll

-Shares many qualities with Maybellene: fast tempo, rapid fire lyrics, hook
Differences: call and response between piano and guitar
Instrumental break: more advanced

Choo-choo ch boogie (1946)
Artist: Louis Jordan
Genre: Jump Music

-Synthesis of regional styles
-Verses set to blues progression
-Intended as dance music
-Piano plays boogie woogie pattern
-Lyrics: coded message
-Two instrumental breaks: piano and sax, improv in the jazz tradition
-8 beat pattern with stress on backbeat

Roll ’em Pete
Artist: Joe Turner
Genre: Boogie Woogie

-Fast Tempo
-Emphasis on piano
Left hand: repetitive melodic patterns
Right hand: off beat
-8 beat pattern

Rock around the Clock
Artist: Bill Haley and the Comets
Genre: Rock and Roll

-Combination of jump music and blues
-Electric guitar, bass, sax, drums
-Western swing beat
-Fast tempo

Mule Skinner Blues (1) ***
Artist: Jimmie Rodgers

-Traditional cowboy song
-Punctuated by yodel
-Guitar accompaniment, strumming

Old Man River
Artist: Kern & Hammerstein
Genre: American Musical

-Joe’s signature song
-Atypical of most African American roles: operatic, complex
-Reflection of Jim Crow society

Hoochie Coochie Man ***
Artist: Muddy Waters
Genre: Chicago Blues?

-Stop time emphasizes lyrics

I’m a Hog for You
Artist: Clifton Chenier
Genre: Cajun/Blues/Rock and Roil

-Cross-pollination of genres
-Blues: 12 bar blues and blues poetic form
-Rock and roll: electric guitar, drum set
-Bilingual song

El Mansiero
Artist: Don Azipiazu
Genre Rumba/ Latin American

-Emphasis on percussion: maracas, claves, congas
-Melody rhythm distinct from accompaniment
-Vocals (Spanish): long phrases
-Features the “clave rhythm”: patterns of 8 beats with an emphasis on 1,4,7 and 3 and 5

Para los Rumberos
Artist: Tito Puente
Genre: Salsa

-Features the timbales: single-headed drums
-Introduction: bass and percussion
-Instrumental refrains by the trumpet
-2 Timbale Solos:
1)Syncopations and cross-rhythms
2) Clave Rhythm
-Repetition of lyrics in vocal verses

Your Cheatin Heart
Artist: Hank Williams Sr.
Genre: Country Music- Honky Tonk

-Nasal Vocal Style
-Steel Guitar (originally a Hawaiian instrument)
-Full rhythm section
-Strophic form
-Instrumental breaks
-Emphasis on hook

Zydeco sont pas sale
Artist: King Clifton Chenier
Genre: Cajun-Zydeco

-Cross-pollination with blues and rock and roll
-Quick dance beat
-Rub board and drum set
-Solo accordion

Allons a Lafayette
Artist: Joe Falcon and Cleoma Breaux
Genre: Cajun

-Features the accordion on the melody
-Guitar accompaniment and rhythm
-Strophic form
-Instrumental chorus after each verse
-Vocals: thin and nasal

Artist: Chuck Berry
Genre: Rock and Roll (with Country and Blues influence)

-Structure based on 12 bar blues
-One chord per verse (instead of traditional 3)
-Instrumental break: showcases guitar sills
-Rapid fire lyrics

Afro-American Symphony (Movement 3, Animato)
Artist: William Grant Still
Genre: Orchestral movement with blues, spiritual influences

-Homage to African American genres: spiritual, Tin Pan Alley, blues, jazz
-First melody: blues influence
-Second melody: spiritual
-Preserves traditional format and sound of a classical symphony

Where’s the Mate for me?
Artist: Kern and Hammerstein (Showboat)
Genre: American musical

-Sung by Gaylord Ravenal
-Same melody in each verse, unchanging tune
-Never completes song
-Reflection of Ravenal’s character

Artist: Kern and Hammerstein (Showboat)
Genre: American Musical

-Duet between Magnolia and Ravenal
-Love song
-Active narrative (atypical)
-4 distinct melodies: changes in key and meter
-Features a waltz melody as a reflection of love

Bill ***
Artist: Kern and Hammerstein (Showboat)
Genre: American Musical

-Sung by Julie at the end
-Lyrics are colloquial

Don’t Be cruel
Artist: Elvis Presley
Genre: Rock and Roll

-Based on 12 bar blues
-Verse/chorus structure
-4 verses
-Vocals: Blues and country inflections- hiccuping effect

That’ll Be the Day
Artist: Buddy Holly
Genre: Rock and roll

-Alternating verses and choruses
-Instrumental break features Holly on the guitar

Ain’t That a Shame
Artist: Fats Domino
Genre: R&B

-Rhythm and Blues instrumentation: vocal, piano, guitar, sax, bass, drums
-Verses: 12 bar blues
-Refrain quotes title (HOOK)
-Instrumental break features a sax solo
-1st and 3rd verse repeat

Artist: Charlie Parker
Genre: Bebop

-More “swing” feel
-Introduction: piano
-Piano comping
-Head: saxophone and muted trumpet
-conclusion: restatement of head

Long Tall Sally
Artist: Little Richard
Genre: Rock and roll

-Based on Ain’t that a shame
-Evidence of 12 bar blues
-Verse/chorus structure
-Band: piano, guitar, sax, bass, drums
-Sax solo
-Hook: “Having some fun tonight”

-Usually a male in a lower register
-Slow, romantic songs
-Intended as breaks between dance (swing music)
-Examples: Bing Crosby, Russ Columbo
Jazz Singer