American Experimentalism artists
Ives, Copeland
Reflection by soloists; vocal no. for solo singer and orchestra. A musical number in an opera, cantata, or oratorio.
Term used in impressionist (early modernism) period to describe the most advanced style
Ex. Rite of Spring
An improv. passage for a soloist in concerto, or sometimes in other works; usually at the end of a movement.
Classical era artists
Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven
Closing movement
Sonata or rondo form (fast/very fast tempo)
A large composition for orchestra and solo instrument
Contrasting Classical Era from Baroque and Romantic
Musica is a little lighter, less serious than Baroque (Opera Buffa)

Concise use of form (growing audiences, symphony)

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Growing importance of composer’s self-expression

Increasing seriousness given to music in Romantic Era to mirror one’s inner emotional life

The rise of the composer as a genius of originality

Maintained characteristic of Romanticism
More emphasis on color and timbre, evocative and personal

New forms without melody

Double-Exposition Sonata Form
a type of sonata form developed for use in concertos (189); two expositions instead of exposition repeat (orchestra & solo) and development (conflict) > recapitulation (reconciliation)
Depict best of both recitative and aria: dialogie, action, and dynamic emotions. A musical number in an opera, cantata, or oratorio sung by 2 or more people.
Ex. of idee fixed piece
Berlioz’s V – “Dream of a Witches’ Sabbatch” – Symphonie Fantastique
Example of an aria
Ho capito – Mozart (DG)
Example of an ensemble piece
La ci darem la mano – Mozart (DG)
Early 20th century mvmt in art, music, and literature in Germany and Austria
Expressionism artist
Schoenberg – reflected fascination with Freud – subjective expression of inner turmoil – distorted and exaggerated musical features –
Features of Classical Music
Natural and pleasing variety
Natural – can be too simple, even boring

Pleasing variety can be an invitation to an unnatural complexity

Idee fixe
Used by Berlioz for a recurring theme used in all movements of one of his program symphonies – “a fixed idea”
Influences on Classical Era
Affected by Enlightenment, rise of comic oper, french rev. (Beethoven)
Many of his works on American subjects, quoting American fold songs, pop songs, ragtime – the 1st important nationalist composer
March & Trio
Type of classical minuet and trio – “funeral march” – Mahler Symphony No. 1 Mvmt III
Short song and piano pieces
Minuet form
Moderate tempo. a movement in sonata, symphony, etc., based on this triple meter dance.
Modernism: IMpressionism
A French artistic mvmnt of the late 19th and early 20th centuries
Motivic Transformation
An artistic constructionstrongest when elements of the large0scale construction are found on the smallest scale (vice-versa) – Organic Growth – Beethovenuse instability as a motive
20th century mvmt involing a return to the style and form of older music, particularly 19th century music
Opening movement form
Drama presented in music, with the characters singing instead of speaking.
Post-Romantic Era

Affected by age of industrialism, nationalism and antisemitism

STravinksy, looking back to look forward – imagining irrational roots with increased awareness of native people
Program Music
Instrumental music with a specific story
Dialogue and action (half-singing/half-reciting style of presenting words) – Follows speech rhythms closely
Romantic Era Artists
Chopin (early), Berlioz (late), Pucchini, Wagner, Brahms
Romantic Era Music Features
Increased freedom given to performed in musical time

Experimentation with harmony, more richness, and less specific relationships

Fascination with supernatural/macabre


Romantic era: Rubato
To steal (musical time) – free treatment of meter in performance – results in improvisatory push and pull of tempo.
Form consisting of one main theme or tune alternating with other themes or sections.
Developed by Beethoven from minuet to use for movements in larger compositions (No. 5 III. Allegro)
Second Viennese School
Schoenberg attracted two star students: Alban Berg and Anton Webern
Slow movement form
Sonata, variations, rondo, other; slow/very slow
Fast, moderate tempo. Developed by Classiacl composers and ysed in almost all 1st mvmts of their symphonies, sonatas, etc.

Slow intro -> exposition -> development -> recap. -> coda

A vocal style developed by Schoenberg – in between singing and speaking.
String quartet
Instrumental group with two violins, viola, and cello
The Symphony
A large orchestral piece in several movements.
Theme and Variation Form
a form consisting of a tune (the theme) plus a number of variations on it
Typical Orchestra Movement Scheme
Opening movement, slow movement, minuet (with trio), closing movement
Typical forms
sonata, rondo, minuet, theme andvariations
Wagnerian Opera
Known for the fusion of opera into a single work (no distinctions between aria, recitative, ensemble) and rxn against opera as pure entertainment.