Hugo Wolf
German composer of 250 lieder, best known for adapting Wagner’s methods to the German lied – fused poetry with music.
Gustav Mahler
German composer known for large orchestras, which he would concert down to few instruments at a time. Influenced Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern. Songs play large role in symphonies, 4 of which include voice.
Richard Strauss
German composer and famous conductor, led most of the world’s best orchestras. Wrote symphonic poems modeled after Liszt and Berlioz.-Colorful orchestration, Thematic transformation, programs based on literature. *Wrote opera and lieder.
Mikhail Glinka
Father of Russian Music, first Russian composer to be recognized internationally. Wrote political music, used whole-tone techniques. Wrote A Life for the Tsar and Ruslan and Lyudmila.
Piotr ll’yich Tchikovsky
Russian composer not interested in pursuing a national style, though he used some Russian thematic subjects.
The Mighty Handful
Group of 5 composers who stood against the professionalism of the conservatories. *Incorperated Russian folk song, modal and exotic scales, and folk polyphony.
Mily Balakirev
Only composer of the mighty 5 to have conventional training in music.
Modest Musorgsky
Most original of the mighty five, known for novel harmonic progressions. Composed opera, instrumental works, etc.
Cesar Franck
Father of French Chamber music, known for his cosmopolitan style of composing. Born in Belgium. Wrote in classical forms, used thematic transformation. Composed cyclically. Enriched basically homophonic textures with counterpoint.
Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov
Master of orchestration, one of mighty 5 who taught as a professor. Taught Stravinsky. Sheherazade is of his best-known works. Wrote 15 operas. Best known for programmatic orchestra pieces.
Bedrich Smetana
Bohemian composer who was a strong nationalist, wrote symphonic poems.
Edvard Grieg
Norwegian composer of incidental music. Nationalistic, wrote folk songs and peasant dances for piano.
Edward Elgar
First English composer to gain international recognition in over 200 years. Did NOT adapt a nationalistic style, rather he drew upon styles of Wagner and Brahms. Known for ENIGMA VARIATIONS.
Gabriel Fuare
French composer of fundamental French style. Uses undirecitonal harmony, diluting need for resolution. Develops new style in which melodic lines are fragmented and harmony is less driven. Studied under Saint-saens. Professor at Paris Conservatoire.
Giacomo Puccini
Italian composer of opera, studied in Milan. Blended Verdi’s vocal style with Wagner’s approach, including leitmotifs. His scenes are more fluid than in earlier operas.