J.J. Quantz
Flautist. Wrote “Versuch einer Anweisung, die Flote traversiere zu speielen” (1752) or “playing the Flute” in English.
French Enlightenment writer, historian, and philosopher famous for his wit.
Baron Montesquieu
French lawyer, man of letters, and political philosopher who during the Enlightenment.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
French philosopher, writer, and composer during the Enlightenment.
Beethoven scratched his dedication to Napoleon from his 3rd Symphony.
Pietro Metastasio
Librettist, set the standard for opera seria. Considered the most important writer of opera seria libretti.
Charles Burney
English music historian, composer and musician. Wrote “General History of Music” (1776)
John Hawkins
English Author. Wrote “General History of Science and Practice of Music” (1776)
Faustina Bordoni
Famous soprano. Sung in Handel’s Academy of Music. Spouse of Johann Adolf Hasse.
Charles VI of Vienna
Holy Roman Emporer. Hired Gluck.
Raniero de Calzabigi
Librettist for Gluck.
Maria Barbara Queen of Spain
Hired Domenico Scarlatti.
Maria Barbara Bach
Wife of J.S. Bach.
Carl Abel
Taught by J.S. Bach. Principal viola da gamba and cello player in the court orchestra. Became director of orchestra when Bach left.
Heinrich Koch
Wrote “Introductory Essay on Composition” (1782-93).
Frederick the Great of Prussia
Home of “Empfindsamer stil”
Barltolomeo Cristofori
Regarded as inventor of the piano.
J.J. Fux
Author of “Gradus ad Parnassum” (1725), a treatise on counterpoint.
Johann Matheson
Music theorist. Friend of Handel. Wrote “Der vollkommene Capellmeister” (1739).
Count Morzin
Employed Haydn as his Kapellmeister.
Maria Keller
Baron Furnberg
Played with Haydn.
Nikolaus “the Magnificent” Esterhazy
Principal employer of Haydn.
Luigia Polzelli
Lover of Haydn. Italian mezzo-soprano, who sang at the Esterhazy court in Hungary during the late 18th century.
J.P. Salomon
Gave “Jupiter nickname to Mozart’s Symphony No. 41. Born in same house as Beethoven. Brought Haydn to London.
Baron von Swieten
Patron of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven.
Leopold Mozart
Father of W.A. Mozart. Wrote violin textbook “Versuch einer grundlichen Violinschule” (1756)
Nannerl Mozart
Older sister of W.A. Mozart.
Empress Maria Theresa
Emperor Joseph II
Vienna HRE. Commissioned a piece from Mozart. Mozart played harpsichord for them.
Hieronymus Colloredo
Employer of Mozart.
Aloysia and Costanza Weber
Aloysia turned down marriage proposal from Mozart, Mozart married Aloysia’s sister Costanza.
Lorenzo de Ponte
Mozart’s librettist.
Maximilian Franz
Employer and patron of the young Ludwig van Beethoven. Beethoven played viola in his orchestra.
Price Lichnowsky
Gave patronage to Beethoven.
Johann Schenk
Private instructor of Beethoven.
Johann Albrechtsberger
Private instructor of Beethoven.
Antonio Salieri
Private instructor of Beethoven.
Archduke Rudolf
Friend and patron of Beethoven.
Prince Lobkowitz
Patron of Beethoven.
Antonie Brentano
Possibly Beethoven’s immortal beloved.
Philosophy of Classical period. Science was applied to social, psychological, and political problems. Goal to improve human rights, social equality and living conditions.
Ideas of philosophes led to revolutions in France and America.
Tendency to recur at regular intervals.
Academy of Ancient Music (1726)
Period-instrument orchestra.
18th-century style of music characterized by homophony and elaborate ornamentation. Idea of lighter accompaniment and focus on the melody.
Empfindsamer stil
Style of musical composition intended to express “true and natural” feelings.
Type of comic opera performed within a serious opera.
Quarrel of the Buffoons
New Italian opera (opera buffa) vs. French purists.
French opera comique that uses pop tunes.
A short aria.
German opera using spoken dialogue and resembling ballad opera.
Continental Harmony
William Billing’s collection including “Creation”.
Maestro di cappella
Person in charge of music-making.
Balanced Binary Form
When the end of the first section and the end of the second section have analogous material and are organized in a parallel way in binary form. A and B sections tonic and dominant roles switched.
Rounded Binary Form
Follows tonic dominant (A to B), then presents modulatory passages leading back to tonic for both A and B material.
Sonata Form
AKA 1st mvt. form or expanded binary form, starts with principled musical material, modulates to dominant or relative key, then finds its way back to tonic, recap first section without modulation to dominant.
The True Art of Playing the Keyboard
CPE Bach (1753+62)
Mannheim Steamroller
Famous Mannheim orchestra led by Stamitz.
Double Exposition
Two statements of the theme, one by orchestra and one by soloist.
Rondo Form
Sturm und Drang
German literary movement of the late 18th century that exalted nature, feeling, and human individualism and sought to overthrow the Enlightenment cult of Rationalism.
Heiligenstadt Testiment
Acknowledges Beethoven’s deafness.
Stringed instrument with six bowed strings and several additional strings that vibrate sympathetically.
Also called cornett or zink, used in what are now called alta capellas or wind ensembles. Not to be confused with cornet.
An early keyboard instrument producing a soft sound by means of metal blades attached to the inner ends of the keys gently striking the strings.
One of the first pianos named so because it could play multiple dynamics as opposed to earlier keyboard instruments. Also called Fortepiano or Gravicembalo.
Viennese Piano
Uses “backwards” hammers, with the striking end closer to the player than the hinged end.