What musical era was Beethoven from?
What musical era was Mozart from?
What musical era was Ravel from?
What musical era was Brahms from?
Define: Symphony
A multi-movement work played by an orchestra
Define: Sonata
A multi-movement work played by a single pianist, or by one instrument with piano accompaniment
Define: String Quartet
A multi-movement work played by 2 violins, viola, and a cello
Define: Concerto
A 3-movement work for a solo instrument with orchestral accompaniment
What was the problem with the first pianos?
They were too loud
T or F: “Call and Response” and “polyrhythm” are two important aspects of all African musics.
T or F: The Indonesian island of Bali is especially known for its complex Gamelan tradition.
Define: Erhu
A 2-stringed Chinese instrument
Define: ‘Ud
A Middle-Eastern pear-shaped, fretless stringed instrument
Define: Kora
An African 13-stringed bridge harp
Define: Sitar
A long-necked stringed instrument of India
Define: Koto
A Japanese plucked instrument with 13 strings and moveable bridges
Define: Tabla
A pair of drums used to accompany the music of India
Define: Darabukkah
A small clay Middle-Eastern drum that changes pitch by the player’s finger pressure
Define: Call and Response
The native-African tradition of a leader’s improvised phrases alternatingly “answered” by a larger group
Define: Mariachi
A traditional Mexican group comprised of guitars, violin, trumpet, etc
Define: Shamisen
A 3-stringed Japanese “banjo”
Define: Pentatonic Scale
A 5-note family of pitches (often used in Japanese music)
Define: Improvisation
Creating new music “on-the-spot” (at the same time it is being performed)
Define: Zheng
A large Chinese instrument with 13 to 21 strings
Define: Polyrhythm
Several independent rhythms sounding at the same time
Define: Bonang
A bronze “pot”-like instrument used in the gamelan
Who is Ravi Shankar?
India’s best-known guru/sitarist
Define: Big Band
A white, more heavily-arranged adaptation of “swing”
Define: Orchestral Jazz
A symphonic style that incorporates certain elements of jazz, but has no improvisation
Define: Cool Jazz
A “mellow” “West Coast” jazz style developed in the 1950s
Define: Boogie Woogie
An outgrowth of Rhythm & Blues with its well-known “*-to-the-bar rhythmic structure
Define: Hot Jazz
A lively early style of “Dixieland” jazz developed in the 1920s/30s
Define: Bebop
An intensely improvisatory/virtuosic style of jazz developed in the 1950s
Define: Scat Singing
A style of improvised jazz singing on colorful nonsense syllables
Define: Swing
A “Big Band” jazz style prominent in the 1930s-50s
Define: Free Jazz
A “random” loosely-structured style of jazz promoted by Coleman
Define: Fusion
A combination of Jazz and Rock styles
Define: Jazz “Rhythm Section”
Usually Bass, Piano/Guitar and Drums
Which style did Miles Davis promote?
Jazz-Rock Fusion
Which style did Charlie Parker promote?
Which style did Ornette Coleman promote?
Free jazz
Which style did Louis Armstrong promote?
Hot Jazz
Which style did Benny Goodman promote?
Which style did Dave Brubeck promote?
Cool jazz
Which style did Duke Ellington promote?
Orchestral Jazz
Which style did George Gershwin promote?
Big band
Which style did The Andrews Sisters promote?
Define: Tone Color
The characteristic sound of an instrument/voice
Define: Melody
The horizontal presentation of pitch
Define: Harmony
The vertical relationship of pitches
Define: Texture
The interrelationship of simultaneously-sounding musical lines
Define: Rhythm
The element of “time” in music
Define: Form
The structural design of a musical work
Define: Dynamics
The relative loudness/quietness of musical sound
Define: Binary
AB form
Define: Theme
A melody that is the basis for an extended musical work
Define: Meter
Beats organized in a recurring accent pattern
Define: Ternary
ABA form
Define: Fortissimo
A very LOUD dynamic level
Define: Tempo
The speed of the musical beat
Define: Largo
A very SLOW tempo
Define: Pianissimo
A very QUIET dynamic level
Define: Syncopation
An “off-the-beat” accent
Define: Presto
A very FAST tempo
Define: Chord
A harmonic cluster of three or more pitches
Define: Pitch
The relative highness/lowness of a musical sound
What is the correct chronological order of the six musical eras?
Which era is Josquin Desprez from?
Which era is Schoenberg from?
Which era is Brahms from?
Which era is Vaughan Williams from?
Which era is Palestrina from?
Which era is Handel from?
Which era is Ligeti from?
Which era is JS Bach from?
Define: Requiem
A Mass for the Dead
Define: Avant Garde
A term that means “on the forefront” of experimentation
Define: Oratorio
A long multi-movement work based on a Biblical text, for solo singers, chorus, and orchestra
Define: Cantata
A short multi-movement work for solo singers, chorus, and orchestra, usually set to a German text for performance in a Lutheran church service
Define: Motet
A polyphonic choral work based on religious words that are NOT from the Mass
T or F: Mozart died at age 35 while working on a Requiem Mass
What does the “double escapement” mechanism on a modern piano allow the player to do?
Quickly repeat the same note.
T or F: “Chamber music” is written for a small ensemble with one player on each part
What instruments does a String Trio consist of?
Two violins and cello
What instruments does a Wind Quintet consist of?
Horn, oboe, flute, bassoon and clarinet
Which instruments do a String Quartet consist of?
Two violins, viola and cello
What instruments does a Brass Quintet consist of?
Two trumpets, tuba, trombone and horn
What instrument does a Piano Trio consist of?
Violin, cello and piano
Define: Theme and Variations Form
A main melodic idea is presented then undergoes a series of variations (Theme, Variation 1, Variation 2, Variation 3, etc.)
Define: Scherzo and Trio Form
After 1800, the usual 3rd movement design
Define: Sonata Form
The standard Classic 1st movement design: a musical debate with Exposition, Development, and Recapitulation sections
Define: Minuet and Trio Form
Before 1800, the standard Classic 3rd movement design based on an aristocratic dance in 3/4 meter
Define: Rondo Form
Commonly used in final movements, this form features an easily-recognized melody [“A”] that returns either two or three times after contrasting material (ABACA or ABACABA)
What are the 4 most common keyboard instruments?
Organ, Piano, Synthesizer, and Harpsichord
How is sound made in a Harpsichord?
When a key is pressed, a tetter-todder motion raises a plectrum that plucks the string
How is sound made in a Synthesizer?
When a key is pressed, electrical current moves through a microchip to produce sound
How is sound made in a Piano?
When a key is pressed, a complex mechanism causes a felted hammer to strike the string
How is sound made in an Organ?
When a key is pressed, air is forced through a fixed set of pipes
What is the largest musical instrument in both size and scope?
Define: Impressionism
An understated, static style promoted by Debussy
Define: Expressionism
An ultra-shocking, dissonant style fostered by Schoenberg
Define: Minimalism
Modern music based on the hypnotic repetition/distortion of short patterns
Define: Serialism
The compositional technique besed on a pre-arranged series (“row”) of 12 notes
Define: Prepared Piano
The process of attaching objects to the strings of a piano to create unusual new sounds
Define: MIDI
A language that allows computers and digital music devices to communicate together
Define: Atonality
Modern music that has no tonal center
Define: Polytonality
Music that sounds in two or more keys at the same time
Define: Chance Music
A compositional style in which aspects of the work are left to chance
Define: Sprechstimme
A half-spoken, half-sung style of singing on approximate pitches
Describe: Copland: Appalachian Spring
Describe: Schoenberg: Pierrot Lunaire
Song Cycle
Describe: Bernstein: West Side Story
Jazz-Influenced Musical Theatre
Describe: Cowell: The Banshee
Tone Clusters
Describe: Glass: Einstein on the Beach
Minimalist Opera
Describe: Schoenberg: A Survivor From Warsaw
Describe: Debussy: Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun
Symphonic Poem
Describe: Cage: 4:33
Chance Music
Describe: Varese: Poeme Electronique
Musique concrete