Jazz style of the 1940’s;

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Fragmented approach to improvisation;

Free Jazz

Jazz style of the 1960’s;

Often dissonant and experimental

Bluesy jazz of the 1920’s, often with polyphonic texture
Early Jazz

Precursor to jazz;

Mostly composed;

Dance music


Mainstream popular music of the 1930’s;

Dance music


Jazz influenced by other styles; 

popularized in the 1970’s

Jazz that is detached, relaxed, and moderate
Delta Blues

Traditional blues;

loose form

Jazz that is largely composed, refined, and conservative
Classic Blues

Blues influenced by popular song;

popularized in the 1920’s

Jazz that is largely composed, refined, and conservative
Sacred folk music of African American culture
Benny Goodman


Nicknamed “The Kind of Swing”

Dizzy Gillespie


Leader of the Hot Five and Hot Seven

Miles Davis


Member of the AACM

Jelly Roll Morton

Ragtime bandleader;

Brought jazz to France in WWI

James Reese Europe

Bandleader of the 1920’s;

Played sweet music

Duke Ellington

Early jazz pianist;

influenced by ragtime and spanish music

Played at the Cotton Club in Harlem

Teddy Wilson

Pianist of the swing era;

played with Benny Goodman

Charlie Parker
Saxophonist active at Minton’s in the 1940’s
John Coltrane
Saxophonist behind “A Love Supreme”
Wynton Marsalis


Advocate of Neo-Classicism

Lester Bowie
Trumpeter behind “Kind of Blue” and “The Birth of the Cool”
Louis Armstrong

Trumpeter known for playing high and fast;

Pioneer of bebop

Fletcher Henderson

Swing era bandleader;

described as “beyond category”

Ornette Coleman
Saxophonist behind “Free Jazz”
Rito Rio

Bandleader of the swing era;

advocate for female musicians

Dave Brubeck
Pianist behind “Time Out”
Sidney Bechet


Moved to France int he 1920’s

Django Reinhardt


Member of the Quintette of the Hot Club

Paul Whiteman

Swing era bandleader;

known for his arrangements

Lester Young
Saxophonist known for his “horizontal” style of improv
Billie Holiday

Member of the Count Basie band;

Singer of “Strange Fruit”

Ella Fitzgerald
Known for her scatting abilities; sang songs such as “Blue Skies” and “The Man I Love”
Coleman Hawkins
Saxophonist known for his “vertical” style of improv
A rhythm in which a primary beat is skipped
Dropping Bombs

A bebop technique; irregular rhythmic patterns;

mostly found in the drums

Grouping of Beats
One melody with accompaniment
Multiple melodies performed simultaneously 
Stride Piano
One hand plays chords; the other plays melody/improvs
12 Bar Blues
Three-phrase structure with a common harmonic progression
A series of intervals used to construct melody and harmony
Multiple rhythms performed simultaneously 
Call and Response
Back and forth exchange in music
Harsh sounding harmonies 
Playing in more than one key (scale) at the same time

The speed of a song;

determined by the beat

A recurring section played by the full group
Range of Pitches
Gutbucket Sounds
Unusual timbres produced on an instrument
How does D. Leon Wolff criticize bebop?
He feels that bebop musicians do not play with ease.
How does Louis Armstrong criticize bebop?

He feels that bebop musicians are trying something new just to be different;

they do no know jazz.

According to Dizzy Billespie, what common stereotypes about bebop musicians existed in 1940’s?
They wore dark glasses and had facial hair.
How does Dizzy Gillespie respond to Louis Armstrong’s criticism of bebop?
He suggested that Armstrong did not know enough about music technically to understand bebop.
What is NOT Dizzy’s “Desiderata”–traits that he feels jazz musicians need?
Progressive ideas
Nightclub in Harlem where bebop was born
Minton’s Playhouse
Saxophonist known as “Bird”—a bebop legend
Charlie Parker
Long-standing trait of jazz…dominates bebop
Pioneer of the electric guitar
Charlie Christian

Contains a head, but a short one; it’ s mostly improv.

Includes improvised features for the sax, trumpet, and drums.


Follows a four-beat meter

Differs from most bebop in its danceable tempo and relaxed feel


Exemplifies the “fragmented” style of improv used by Dizzy Gillespie

Contains a head, but a short one–mostly improv

How does Pete Welding describe “Free Jazz”?
as a celebration of the spontaneous group improvisation found in early jazz
How does John A. Tynan describe “Free Jazz”
as an unsuccessful exercise in individual expression
Does does the AACM define ragtime?
music that was originally improvised, but was later composed in order to be deemed high quality
How does the AACM define creative music?
music that is primarily improvised
How does the AACM define blues?
music that features certain timbres and rhythms
How do the AACM’s definitions of ragtime and blues reflect the mission of this organization?
They emphasize the tradition of improvisation in African American music
Give one reason why fusion is beneficial to jazz
it mixes different types of music so it appeals to all listeners
Give one reason why fusion could be seen as detrimental to jazz
it changes the fundamentals and how people think of jazz
give one reason why free jazz could be seen as the future of jazz
it evolves jazz, making it looser with more improv
give one reason why free jazz could be seen as the demise of jazz
it changes the fundamentals and how people view jazz
“A Love Supreme”

By John Coltrane

Four note motive

mostly improvised

“Miles Runs the Voodoo Down”

By Miles Davis

regular beat

contains a funk-like groove in the bass line

“Hora Decubitus”

By Charles Mingus

Longer, traditional head

contains both homophonic and polyphonic sections

follows a four-beat meter