“the one that follows” this term refers to the seven-tube row of a two-row panpipe or siku
an Andean term used to refer to indigenous communities or social/political units
a major indigenous Andean language spoken in southern Peru and Bolivia
a relatively large double-headed drum. In the Aymara context of Conima the term refers to the drums used to accompany sikus. also refers toa smaller double-headed Argentinean drum used in Andean “folkloric” ensemble
like punctuation marks in language the term refers to a musical gesture that signals the end of a phrase, section or piece. A “partial cadence can be likened to a comma in a sentence and a “full cadence” is like a period marking the end of a sentence
Andean stringed instrument modeled on the Spanish guitar although much smaller in size. It has between four and twenty strings divided into four or five courses. Regional tunings abound
a genre of peruvian urban music that is a combination of wayno melody and form with cumbia rhythm performed with electric instruments and Caribbean percussion. In the 1980s and 1990s its primary audience was highland migrants in cities and especially the children of Andean migrants
a synonym for small, high-pitched charangos
a fast siku genre performed in Conima for Easter like a ligero except that snare and bass drums replace the bombos
alarge end-notched fluted used in Puno, Peru and elsewhere like a kena only larger
chuta chuta
fast cadence figures at the end of phrases in the ligero and cholo genres in Conima
a group of instruments made and tuned to be played together
In Peru this social category connotes Euro-Peruvian or strong Spanish heritage. It is a higher-prestige category relative to mestizos and indigenous people.
cultural cohort
a cultural/identity unit based on a restricted number of shared habits and parts of the self-for example, gender cohorts, age cohorts, occupational cohorts
a song-dance genre from Colombia in duple meter. As performed by a variety of ensemble types, it became widely diffused throughout the Americas
Guide. The term is used for the informal (in Conima) and more hierarchical (in Lima) leaders of Conimeno wind ensembles
two or more voices or instruments performing variants of a melody simultaneously such that they are not in strict unison
a sigh that calls something else to mind through some type of resemblance . A drawing of a dragon is an iconic sign for the idea “dragon”
a dance and siku genre for the “coming out” of young girls
a sign that calls something else to mind because the perceiver has experienced the sign and what it stands for together. Smoke is an inex of fire. The “Wedding March” is an index for weddings and marriage.
indianist movement. a generic term to refer to a variety of middle-class Peruvian social movements that were concerned with indigenous peoples and cultural practices
the one that leads. This term refers to the six-tube row of a two-row panpipe or siku
a pre-columbian generic term referring to indigenous Andean circle dances
indigenous vertical end-notched flute of pre-Columbian origin
a peruvian mestizo song-dance genre in 6/8-3/4 meter and favoring the major mode. the songs are strophic and the musical form is sectional, e.g., AABBCB;the entire form is repeated twice. It is a flirtatious couples dance and is related historically and stylistically to the cueca Chilena and the Bolivian cueca
a social category in the Andes implying a mixture of European and indigenous heritage whereas it was once used as a racial category it is now better understood as a cultural/class category implying a mixture of Iberian and indigenous cultural habits.
indigenous concept of the Earth as a vital, living, feminine life force
participatory music
this refers to music-making contexts in which there are no clear artist/audience distinctions in which the success of performance is judged by the degree of participation (in playing, singing, dancing) achieved, and in which participants at all skill levels are welcomed to participate together in the same performance. It is music for doing.
vertical duct flute, Aymara pronunciation
vertical duct flute, Quechua pronunciation
name in Conima for an indigenous cane transverse flute
presentational music
this is music produced by one group of people (the artists/performers) for another group (the audience). This is music for listening.
high-altitude regions above the tree line in the Andes
punchay kashua
“day” circle dance performed in Canas during public festivals
the most widely spoken indigenous Andean language
double-row panpipe in which the pitch series is divided between the two rows, a part of indigenous musicf
a mestizo style of double-row panpipe performance in Puno. Often colorful “costumes of light” are worn by performers during festivals; the panpipes are accompanied by snare and bass drums and cymbals. The style resembles the choclo genre of Conima
a siku genre and costumed dance drama that enacts the annual agricultural cycle in Conima
as defined by C.S. Peirce, something (anything) that stands for (calls to mind) something else to someone in some way
mermaid, siren
“Quarter”, refers to the division of the Inca Empire into four quarters
wooden duct flutes originally from Bolivia, used in Conima, Peru for Carnival
sound quality that distinguishes one instrument from another and, more subtly, one singer’s voice from another. Pressing the bow down hard on violin strings produces a different timbre from light bowing. Metal-string charangos have a different timbre from nylon-string charangos
a ritual involving offerings of alcohol and coca leaves to indigenous Andean divinities and social communion through the offering of coca leaves
a small, hand-held drum ussed in the central Peruvian Andes and often played by women
Tuta Kashua
“Night” circle dance performed in private parties among young people in Canas
Vals Criollo
“Criollo waltz” originally a working-class genre popular in the early 20th century in Lima, and often performed with one or two guitars as a vocal solo or duet. Over the course of the twentieth century it became a musical emblem for criollos in Lima more generally
a slow, lyrical Argentinean song genre in 6/8 meter. It is related stylistically to the Peruvian yaravi
Wayno (Huayno)
the most important genre of highland mestizo music, usually in short sectional forms such as AABB or AABBCC, with a major-minor bimodal quality, in simple duple meter and a characteristic rhythm that subtly moves between an eighth-two-sixteenth-note rhythm and an eighth-note triplet. The term refers to regionally specific dances and to a strophic song. In indigenous communities the term is sometimes used in the very broad sense of denoting “music” or “song”
wayno Lento
a slow dance genre performed on sikus in Conima
wayno Lento
a slow dance genre performed on sikus in Conima
wayno ligero
a fast dance genre performed on sikus in Conima
A slow lyrical strophic song genre in 6/8-3/4 meter. The texts often refer to loss, romantic love, and nostalgia for home
flow experience
conditions: 1) challenge/skill (balance of both) 2) activities w/expanding challenge 3) activties bound in time and place 4) continual feedback in the moment as to how one is doing 5)other contextual features that focus attention in ward (block external distractions to the activity and/or other partcipants, e.g., silence in a concert hall, loud volume in a dance club)
state of heightened concentration; related to indexical experiences
study of sign instances and processes (developped by C.S. Pierce (1839-1914); link between sound and experience
instrument with metal keys, resonates, played with interlocking hands; Shona/Zimbabwe
bossa nova
a refinement of popular samba: minimalist sound, understated vocals, sophisticated text-music relationships and poetic texts, e.g., Tom jobim’s classic Desafinado (translates to “out of tune”) a musical manifesto for the Bossa Nova movement; Samba: sophisticated or elite
harp-type instrument played within the Mande Jali tradition; Africa/Mande/Jali
playfull recreational dance. Drummer plus hosho, clappers; outside the house; Shona/Zimbabwe
de black evening follies
1950s/1960s concert band, imitate 1940s style of the US, black middle class, Zimbabwe;
basic ostinato 8 beats or 16 beats; groove/cyclical; Mande/Africa, instrumental music
elaboration section; Mande/Africa; instrumental music
cosmopolitan cultural formation
formation which draws its habits from a number of different sites world wide, both local and translocal
“concert” in Zimbabwe
African middle class, formal tradition, Black Evening Follies, etc.
“blacksmith of the word”: verbal artist/instrumentalist, historian, praise singer, political moderator, ambiguous social standing; africa
samba schools
huge grassroots performing ensembles that perform during Carnival in Rio and now elsewhere; Brazil/Rio de Janeiro/Carnival;
Carmen Miranda
popularized samba; famous musician
Afro-Brazilian Religion w/W. African roots (e.g. Yoruba of Nigeria
not all types of Brazilin popular music but to a tradition of sophisticated popular music made by and for the higher classes; it is based in an elite aesthetic of “ART”. It is a presentational and high fidelity tradition
interlocking parts
fitting your notes into the spaces of other people parts to create a greater whole. In African music this type of practice occurs at micro levels (the two hands interlock playing mbira) and the macro level of organization (e.g. call and response singing). This is like a heightened, stylized version of what should take place in a good, interactive, conversation and is key for creating and representing social synchrony
Dense sounds
a)buzzy timbres: this feature is built into many african musical instruments (eg bottle caps on mbira or metal jangles on the kora), and the ubiquitous use of shakers creates a buzzy aura around entire ensembles
b) wide tuning: the tuning of unisons an doctaves slightly apart creates density through complex overtones and ocmbination tones
c) overlapping textures: may include overlaying multiple polyphonic vocal and instrumental parts, staggered beginnings an dendings, heterophony (buzzy timbres also help here). Dense, overlapping textures seem to contradict the “cleaner” principle of interlock (fitting into spaces). In fact the two frequently work together in African music performance, e.g. two interlocking shaker parts create a whole that overlaps other parts
“Ground” and “Elaboration” Part Organization
“Ground” or “Core” parts supply the basic rhythmic-melodic-harmonic framework for a performance. Ground parts are typically limited in the amount of contrast or variation that can be introduced by that player/singer/dancer. “Elaboration” roles or parts provide variations and improvisation. A lead drummer, for example, may improvise musical variations, drum speech phrases, or imitate the rhythms of a dancer’s movements, whereas the support drummers, shaker players, and bell player must keep to repetitive, stable, ground patterns. These parts do not necessarily correlate with expert and less experienced performers, sometimes experts are needed to hold up the core parts.
cyclical form
A majority of African Music is organized most basically around one or more ostinatos. Often the prominent cycle defines the time unit and major subdivisions of time for a piece. Strophic songs (verse change, music stays the same) might be sung over an ostinato
open form
Much African music is not organized linearly with a set beginning, middle, and end, but is open-ended
) Intense Repetition and Long Performances:
Pieces and especially the ground parts tend to be repeated for a long time with intensive variations added slowly, if at all. The greater need for a part to ground the overall performance, the greater the need for repetition in that part. The basic rhythmic flow of a performance, carried by certain ground parts, tends not to be altered. Long repetition correlates with participatory dance music, and shifting interlocking relationships within the group—both aiding heightened social syncing.
Rhythmic/Metric Structures
tend to involve a play of tensions between a duple and triple division of the beat (compound duples like 6/8 and 12/8 facilitate this since they are easily divided both by 2s and 3s)
general sub-saharan African features of music
1)Interlocking Parts
2)Dense textures
3)Ground and Elaboration Part Organization
4)cyclical forms open forms intense repetition and long performance
5)Rhythmic/ Metric Structures
Jali performance
praise singing, instrumental performance, recounting family histories, playing for nobility and wealthy patrons
3 West African musical/religious features in Brazilian candomble
yoruba deities, language, drum trios, agogo, spirit possession, dense textures, interlocking cyclical forms, ground/elaboration
most important function for mbira performance
spirit possession, Zimbabwe/Shona; participatory
Nazi minister of propaganda and information
Pete Seeger
champions participatory “peoples music”
Cajun band
fiddle, accordian, guitar, triangle
mixes blues and cajun/creole music
initiates the popular recordings of blues
female vocalists backed by jazz bands
1920s old time string band
fiddle, clawhammer banjo, guitar
Bill Monroe
country blues
solo singer and acoustic guitar
Kingston Trio
popular “folk revival” group
2 most important style sources of “Freedom Songs” of the early pacifist phase of the civil rights movement
gospel music and labor songs
standard form of old time stringband music for dancing
dicent sign
a sign that is affected by what it stands for and is thus interpretted as casually linked to its object; a weathervane is a dicent because the wind direction (its object) points it
semiotic density
the relative numbers of potential signs that coexist simultaneously in an art form or communicative act. A written text is less dense than someone speaking the text, where tone of voice, rhythm, and tempo of speaking along with facial expressions and gestures, add more signs that occur simultaneously with the words spoken. Songs are denser still with the addition of melody, instruments, harmony, etc., to the sung text.
“We Shall Overcome”
brought to the Civil Rights movement by Pete Seeger; popular during the pacifist phase
strophic form
something stays the same and something changes; ballad; melody stays the same and the lyrics change
a right-hand banjo technique in which the index finger strikes down playing melody notes and thumb plays the fifth string (hand position somewhat in the shape of a claw). This style represents continuity with West African playing techniques, was diffused through minstrel performers in the 19th century, and is a hallmark trait distinguishing old-time from bluegrass today.
Zimbabwe dance; interlocking drums that follow the body rhythm of one of he dancers
Skillet Lickers
hillbilly band of the 1920s that the middle class old time string band style is partially based off
indexical cluster
relations between formerly unrelated signs become naturalized by redundantly grouping them together
7 stringed guitar used in Karnatak music, occassionally played by women
cognitive dissonance
when what one experiences conflicts with habits of belief and value (doubt, and the drive to settle doubt-Peirce
creates a drone background to South Indian music; tall, drone; 4 strings?; tonal center through the entire song
Brazilian capoeira
Afro-Brazilian art form that combines elements of martial arts, music, and dance. It was created in Brazil by slaves brought from Africa, especially from present day Angola some time after the 16th century
“Say it Loud”
funk song written and recorded by James Brown in 1968. It is notable both as one of Brown’s signature songs and as one of the most popular “black power” anthems of the 1960s.
the major song form of South India and a mainstay of karnatak concerts, 3 parts; became popular because other styles were too long and complex; this was more appropriate for radio play
link between sound and experience
Kingston Trio
an American folk and pop music group that helped launch the folk revival of the late 1950s to late 1960s
bira ceremonies
religious ceremony to honor ancestors; dance and song; can be inside or outside; Shona society from Zimbabwe
improvisation of a new melodic setting for a line of a kriti while keeping its rhythmic structure substantially intact
a social group identified by the combination of European and Indigenous cultural heritages; main common denominator between all of latin American
Earl Scruggs
a musician noted for perfecting and popularizing a 3-finger style (now called Scruggs style) on the 5-string banjo that is a defining characteristic of bluegrass music.
identity politics
using steortypes of partical group to emphasize power; has been used in political and academic discourse in the United States since the 1970s[citation needed]. One aim of identity politics has been to empower the oppressed to articulate their oppression in terms of their own experience—a process of consciousness-raising that distinguishes identity politics from the liberal conception of politics as driven by individual self-interest.
a repeated musical motive, phrase, melody, chord progression, or rhythmic figure; when continual repetition of the musical unit in question serves as the basic structure of a piece, it may be termed ostinato form.
sign-object connected by resemblance
sign-object connected by co-occurance
state of heightened concentration
defined and agreed upon through language
organization of parts heard simultaneously
nature/quality of vocal and instrumental sound
sequential organization of musical sound
Pete Seeger
an American folk singer and an iconic figure in the mid-20th century American folk music revival; In the 1960s, he re-emerged on the public scene as a prominent singer of protest music in support of international disarmament, civil rights, and for environmental causes.
Kora (instrument)
side of the strings). Ostinato riffs (“Kumbengo”) and improvised solo runs (“Birimintingo”) are played at the same time by skilled players. west african; linear structure, ostinato form; instrument comes back to what it was playing
promoted by the government to be national song/style of music; mostly percussion
C.S. Peirce
founder of semiotics
Ralph Peer
record producer in the field of music in the 1920s and 1930s. Peer pioneered remote recording of music when in June 1923 he took remote recording equipment south to Atlanta, Georgia to record regional music outside the recording studio in such places as hotel rooms, ballrooms, or empty warehouses; In the same year he supervised the recording of Mamie Smith’s “Crazy Blues”, reputed to be the first blues recording specifically aimed at the African-American market.[who?] In 1924 he supervised the first commercial recording session in New Orleans, Louisiana, recording jazz, blues, and gospel music groups there.

He is also credited with what is often called the first country music recording, Fiddlin’ John Carson’s “Little Old Log Cabin In The Lane”/”That Old Hen Cackled and The Rooster’s Goin’ To Crow”.

samba school
people that promoted and performed the samba.
Fuzzy Mountain String Band
tried to model their music off authenic stringband recordings however since there were so many band recordings this was hard to do
Fiddlin’ John Carson
, a well known regional fiddler and contest fiddler, one of the first to record “hillbilly” or “old-time” music in the early 1920s, paving the way for the country music market.
double-row panpipes played in large groups in Aymara festivals in southern Peru. Style of performance involves interlocking the pitches of the two rows played separately by partners—indicating the values of collective, cooperative, reciprocal social relations in Aymara villages.
mandolin, fiddle, banjo (three-finger picking style), guitar, double bass, gospel harmony.
vocal, violin, mrdangam, tambura. Karnatak music, indigenous people from South India
12 bar blues
piano accordion, electric guitars and bass, traps, scrub-board; Zydeco music
sikus and bombos
Aymara society in Conima, indigenous music, interlocking parts, performed during dry season, participatory
old time string band
fiddles, frailed (or clawhammer) banjo, guitar.
double bell (agogo), large bass drums (surdos), scrappers (reco-reco), pandeiro, and other percussion instruments played in large numbers to accompany singing and dancing.
12 bar blues
vocal and acoustic guitar playing a I-IV-I-V-I harmonic progression.
button accordion, fiddles, guitar, triangle; zydeco also uses accordion however this grouping of instruments is more specific to cajun
multiple metal-stringed charangos played together without any other instruments