John Philip Sousa
Beginning of American Jazz – Lead the US Marine Band – Joined Navy and raised money for WWI efforts
Duke Ellington
Swing band composer and conductor – 2000 compositions and arrangements – C. Jam Blues
J. S. Bach
Baroque Era – Composed over 300 cantatas – Cantata 140
Classical Era – performed for royalty as a child – Symphony #40
Classical Era – helped usher in Romantic Music – Deaf – Symphony #5
Louis Armstrong
“Father of Jazz” – received musical training at boys home – mentored by King Oliver – Hotter than That
Alan Freed
Cleveland DJ who coined the term “rock and roll” in 1950s
Wynton Marsalis
Elevated the making and presentation of Jazz – 9 Grammy awards, pulitzer prize, peabody award – currently Artistic Director of Jazz of Lincoln Center in NYC
Theme and Variations
Melody is presented and then repeated in a variety of ways
Chicago Jazz
Solo improvisation – swing rhythm – Louis Armstrong, Hotter Than That
Gregorian Chant
Middle Ages, A cappella vocal music
Catholic church service: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei
folk music – melody is improvised and composed – AAB pattern – Bessie Smith, Lost Your Head Blues
Sonata Form
Classical Era – 3part based on melody and harmony – exposition, development, recapitulation
Program Music
Instrumental music that tells a story
Improvisation and swing – Dixieland Jazz, Chicago Jazz – harmony of 12 bar blues
style of symphonic band – Duke Ellington, C-Jam Blues
Baroque Era – composed for Lutheran Churches – Bach, Cantata 140
Dance Music for bars/saloons – Sedalia, MO: “ragged beat” syncopation – created by musicians who played in bands during the day
New Jazz style of improvisation and composition – smooth rhythmic pattern – popular dance music – many instruments – Influence of Louis Armstrong
Classical Era
1750-1820 – Beethoven, Mozart – Sonata Form
Romantic Era
1820-1900 – Schumann, Wagner, Medelsson, Chopin, Berlioz – (Beethoven introduced individuality)
Baroque Era
1600-1750 – Bach, Vivaldi, Handel
Modern Music
1900-2012 – minimalism, atonality, tone clusters – Jazz and Blues
Middle Ages / Renaissance
1450-1600 – Palestrina Mass, Desprez – imitative polyphony
short musical idea associated with a person, a place, an object, or a thought in a drama
Endless Melody
In an opera – music is continuous with the drama
August 1, 1981 at midnight
First airing on MTV
Doctrine of Affections
Baroque Era – one mood per movement of music
Prepared Piano
Created by John Cage – putting a variety of objects between the strings of the piano to make unique sounds
The center of music in the Middle Ages and Renaissance – Notre Dame Cathedral
The center of music from the Baroque Era through the Romantic Era
New Orleans
The birthplace of Dixieland Jazz
A cappella
vocal music without accompaniment
The absence of a key center – not in a major or minor scale – all of the notes are equal in importance
Scat Singing
Imitating the sound of an instrument(s) using vocals – Louis Armstrong call and response with guitar