tone color
the quality of sound, as distinct from its pitch; (page 8)
timbre variation
the use of a wide range of timbres for expressive purposes (Page 9)
wind instruments
in jazz, instruments that are played by blowing air into a tube; as known as jazz as horns. (Page 9)
any instrument in the jazz ensemble whose improvisation is featured in a performance. (Page 9)
rhythm section
instruments that provide accompaniment for jazz soloing: harmony instruments (piano, guitar), bass instruments (string bass, tuba), and percussion (drum set)(Page 9)
a slight wobble in pitch produced naturally by the singing voice, often imitated by wind and string instruments (Page 10)
the shaping and positioning of the lips and other facial muscles when playing wind instruments (Page 10)
brass instruments
wind instruments, some of which are indeed made of brass, that use a cuplike mouthpiece to create the sounds. (Page 10)
on a brass instrument, a cuplike rest for the musician’s lips, into which air is blown; on a reed instrument, the piece of hard plastic to which a reed is attached. (Page 10)
cup mute
an orchestral mute with an extension that more or less covers the bell of the instrument (Page 11)
harmon mute
a hollow mute, originally with a short extension but usually played without it, leaving a hole in the center and creating a highly concentrated sound (Page 11)
plunger mute
the bottom end of a sink plunger (minus the handle), used as a mute for a brass instrument.
sliding seamlessly from one note to another, as exemplified on the trombone; glissando
an amplified metallophone (metal xylophone) with tubes below each slab; a disc turning within each tube helps sustain and modify the sound. (Page 13)
the technique of playing a string instrument by plucking the strings with the fingers; usually the preferred method in jazz for playing the string bass (page 14)
bass drum
the large drum front and center in a jazz drum kit, struck with a mallet propelled by a foot pedal; it produces a deep, heavy sound (Page 15)
snare drum
smaller drum in a jazz drum kit, either standing on its own or attached to the bass drum, and emitting a penetrating, rattling sound. (Page 15)
broad-rimmed, slightly-convex circular plates that form part of the jazz drum kit. (Page 15)
ride cymbal
a cymbal with a clear, focused, timbre that’s played more or less continuously (Page 15)
crash cymbal
a cymbal that produces a splashy, indeterminate pitch, not unlike a small gong, used for dramatic punctuations. (Page 15)
high-hat cymbal
– two shoulder-level cymbals on an upright pole with a foot pedal at its base; the pedal brings the top cymbal crashing into the lower one with a distinct thunk.(Page 15)
volume, or loudness (Page 16)
a classical-music word for a monophonic solo passage that showcases the performer’s virtuosity. (Page 17)
the simultaneous use of contrasting rhythms; also known as rhythmic contrast (Page 18)
call and response
a pervasive principle of interaction or conversation in jazz; a statement by one musician or group of musicians is immediately answered by another musician or group (Page 18)
jazz from the period 1935-1945, usually known as the Swing era; (2) a jazz-specific feeling created by rhythmic contrast within a particular rhythmic framework (Page 20)
swing eighth note
a jazz soloist’s flexible division of the beat into unequal parts.
minor mode
a diatonic scale similar to the major scale, but with a different pattern of half steps and whole steps (W H W W H W W); normally used in Western music to convey melancholy or sadness. (Page 23)
the pitches in frequencies (Page 23)
blue note
notes in which the pitch is bent expressively; using variable intonation; also known as blue notes (Page 24)
a musical utterance that’s analogous to a sentence in speech (Page 24)
a short, catchy, and repeated melodic phrase (Page 25)
the basic interval for tonal harmony; in a major scale, it’s formed by skipping over a scale degree (e.g., moving from do to mi)
chord voicing
distributing the notes of a chord on a piano, or to different instruments in an arrangement (Page 25)
interval one step smaller than an octave, often used as an extension for chords (Page 26)
in homophonic texture, an accompanying melodic part with distinct, through subordinate, melodic interest; also known (especially in classical music) as obbligato.
solo break
a short two- or four-bar episode in which the band abruptly stops playing to let a single musician solo with a monophonic passage. (Page 28)
stop time
a technique in which a band plays a series of short chords a fixed distance apart (e.g., a measure), creating spaces for an instrument to fill with monophonic improvisation; often used in early jazz. (Page 28)
texture in which two or more melodies of equal interest are played at the same time. (Page 28)