a branch of philosophy concerned with ideas of beauty, pleasure, enjoyment, form and affect
The power in an object or experience that makes a person feel something in response.
Tones that sound simultaneously
The way of life of a people, transmitted from one generation to the next.
Free Rhythm
A rhythm without a recurring accent pattern
A named standard unit of the repertory. Genre can refer to types of music as well and sometimes is used to describe a musical style that is synonymous with its genre (for example, bluegrass.)
Music that accompanies a melody
Heterophonic Texture
Two or more voices or instruments elaborating the same melody in slightly different ways.
Homophonic Texture
A dominant melody with an accompanying harmony.
The distance in pitch between two tones
Major Scale
The familiar do-re-mi-fa-so-la-ti-do of Euro-American music. The white keys on the piano, from C to c, yield the major scale.
The principal tune in a piece of music, consisting of a succession of tones in a particular rhythm over a period of time
Metrical Rhythm
A rhythm with a recurring accent pattern
Monophonic Texture
A single melody
Musical Analysis
A procedure in which patterns in music are revealed by breaking the music into its component parts and determining how the parts operate together to make the whole.
Musical Form
The structure of a musical piece or performance; ;how it is put together (what patterns it has) and how it works.
Musical Phrase
A small series of musical tones that is understood as a meaningful group or unit
Musical Style
The way musical sound is organized, depending on a music-culture’s aesthetics
Two tones, the second of which is exactly twice the frequency of the first. When men and women sing the same melody, they usually sing an octave apart.
the “frequency” of a tone, depending on the vibrations of its sound waves in cycles per second.
Polyphonic Texture
A combination of two or more distinct melodies
Time-relationship among a succession of sounds.
An ordered, step-wise arrangement of all the principal tones in the octave within a piece of music.
The relationship of melodies and harmony
The quality that gives voices and instruments their characteristic sound; why a trumpet sounds different from a violin even when they play the same pitch.
A musical sound with a definite pitch
A musical form in which one part seems to be linked as a “response” to the previous part. The response part appears to be an “answer” or “comment” on the first or “call” part.
Enemyway ceremony
An elaborate curing ritual among the Navajos featuring many songs and war drama
A high voice that comes from the head rather than the chest.
An end-blown instrument like the recorder except that two of the holes are in the back and closed with the thumbs, whereas on the recorder one is in the back and is closed with the left thumb.
Native American Church
A religous movement that began in Mexico in the nineteenth century and spread to the United States, particularly in the American Southwest. Its music, rituals and beliefs combine Christian and Native elements.
Sounding all the frequencies between two pitches of an interval in sequence, upward or downward, as in the sound produced by a slide-whistle; synonymous with portamento
Sounding all the frequencies between two pitches of an interval in sequence, upward or downward, as in the sound produced by a slide-whistle; synonymous with slide
The last brief section of a song; an Indian term similar to Coda in Western classical theory
The apparent speed of a piece of music; how slow or fast it appears to be going.
In western music theory, the basic tone, or note, of a melody or a section of a piece; the most important pitch; usually the pitch that occurs most often; often the last tone of a melody, the pitch that the melody seems to be gravitating toward.
syllables that do not make up words
Postal Workers (song 1)
o Starts off with whistling and drums
o 5 Points
 Post office at the University of Accra, in Ghana
 They are whistling the hymn “Bompata”
 The men are canceling stamps
 Two men whistling, three making percussive sounds
 Each stamp gets canceled multiple times
Sioux Grass Dance
o Starts off with coyote-like sounds (yelling) (unintelligible words)
o Sounds like ‘typical’ Indian music
o 5 points
 It is a falsetto
 It covers more than an octave
 It’s a traditional war dance
 The song ends on a slide
 This is vocables
Zuni Lullaby
o The old sounding woman almost talking
o 5 points
 Takes place in western New Mexico
 There are only two pitches
 The meter is flexible
 Recorded in 1950
 It contrasts plains singing (No typical Indian style)
Iroquois River Dance
o Starts off with one guy saying “cono hono swee gay he ha”
o Has one guy singing in the background
o Homophonic
o 5 points
 Called “Gadasjot”
 Also called Warrior’s Stomp Dance
 Uses the “call-and-response” form
 The dancers follow the leader’s “short jog step”
 They use a cow-horn rattle
Navajo Yeiibechaii
o Starts off with a whoop
o 5 points
 From the “Nightway ceremony”
 Yeiibichai means “Gods-their-grandfathers”
 Occurs on the last night of a 9 night ceremony
 The masked dancers are impersonating the gods and bringing supernatural powers and blessings to help cure a sick person
 Has lots of falsetto singing.
Navajo Shizhanee
o Starts off humming “oooooooo” then “ha nay yah” repeated
o 5 points
 Means “I’m in luck”
 The girl is plowed and leaning on the window to keep herself up
 A satire against the fact that guys are typically the ones who drink too much
 Meant to make the girls laugh
 The song offers courtship opportunities
Navajo Peyote Song
o The Hymn from the Native American Church
o They use a water drum and a rattle to accompany the singing
o Starts off with a baby’s rattle and an old sounding Indian chanting
o 5 points
 A hymn from the Native American Church
 They use a water drum
 No words, the meaning comes from the simple vocables
 The peyote rattle is make from a gourd mounted on a stick
 Many listeners use a fan made of feathers to waft the fragrance of the incense toward them.