German word for ‘song’
: Inclusion of folk songs, dances, legends, and other national material in a composition to associate it with the composer’s homeland; characteristic of romantic music.
Vocal form of poetry in which there is new music for each stanza of a poem.
In French, a composition, usually slow, lyrical, and intimate in character, often for piano solo.

Chopin, Nocturne in E Flat Major, Op. 9, No. 2

In French, study; a piece designed to help a performer master specific technical difficulties.

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Chopin, Etude in C Minor, OP. 10, No. 12 (revolutionary)

incidental music
Music intended to be performed before and during a play, setting the mood for the drama.
Composition in triple meter with a stately character, often for piano solo; originally a Polish court dance.

Chopin, Polonaise in A-flat, Op. 53

symphonic tone poem
Programmatic composition for orchestra in one movement, which may have a traditional form (such as sonata or rondo) or an original, irregular form.
Vocal form in which the same music is repeated for each stanza of a poem.
Realism; the quality of being “true life.”

Puccini’s operas, Tosca, reflect the lives of ordinary people rather than gods, and contain shockingly violent scenes set to music of raw emotional power

Short musical idea associated with a person, object, or thought, characteristic of the operas of Wagner.
Gesamtkunstwerk/ universal art work
Wagner called his works, music dramas rather than operas, emphasizing the close relationship between music and drama.
Mystical castle that protect Wotan, King of Gods, from Alberich, a dwarf in search of the ring that bestows great power to anyone who wears it if they sacrifice love for it.
Cafe Momus
An important location for the Bohemians as it was featured in Puccini’s opera, La Boheme

La Boheme was remade as Moulin Rouge

Significance of Bayreuth
Location of Wagner’s own opera house created solely for performances of his music dramas.

Was built to suit performances of the Ring, perhaps the single most important musical event of the century.