Heavy Metal

Classical & operatic influence

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Reject status quo, working class, individualism

Started in England, moved to Los Angeles (probably because of Van Halen)

Heavy Metal Bands

Iron Maiden

Black Sabbath

Led Zeppelin

Deep Purple

Alice Cooper


Came from Punk

Fast drumming

Slayer, Metallica, Megadeath

Bon Jovi

Started as Heavy Metal, changed to light metal 



New in the 1970s

Crime, negative things, suggestive content

Bronx, NY

Graffiti, break dancing, hip-hop

Poetry most important, then beat

DJ Kool Herc

Latin influence – from Jamaica

One of original Hip-Hop artists

Started using records/turntables as an instrument

Grand Master Flash

Created/perfected art of spinning & scratching w/turntables

Watts Prophets

precursor to rap

civil rights movement

took speech/poetry & had musical background

Lightening Rod/Last Poets

talked about his experiences in jail

Slyvia Robinson

owned Sugar Hill Recors

started Sugar Hill Gang, “Rapper’s Delight”

came up with term “Rap”


came from middle class, college educated

wanted to be Kings of Rock – also a song

Beastie Boys

up to now rap was a black genre

1st white rap group

Public Enemy

supported Black Nationalism

very confrontational

Queen Latifah

picked up constructive cases

considered “mature rapper” compared to others

MC Hammer

popular in 90s

wanted to be next Michael Jackson

sellout to some

Vanilla Ice

White rapper

opened for MC Hammer, eventually outsold him

got in trouble for stealing from other writers

House of Pain

Irish rapper

Latvian DJ


Parents Music Resource Center

lead by Tipper Gore

objected to lyrics, sexual content, violence

music industry fought beack – eventually self-monitor & label

senate hearings about censoring music

1st Video Banned on MTV

Madonna’s “Justify My Love”

“Cop Killer”

song written in reaction to Rodney King beating

led to boycott of Time Warner

2 Live Crew

“Move Somethin”

arrested for obscene music

Tupac Shakur

Death Row – enemies with Bad Boy (Biggie & Puff)

“Hit em up” – insulted Biggie’s wife

September 7, 1996 – Tupac killed in drive-by shooting

March 1997 – Biggie shot

Celebrity Culture

e.g.. Royal wedding, Charlie Sheen

Music industry (or Hollywood) are behind it

Promote one superstar artist rather than several


With right agent & promoters mediocre artist can be a star


Started in Seattle

Large student population

Strong support for music in the city

Local radio stations played alternative music

             -KJET, KCMU, also 2 local periodicals

Repeat of what happened in the ‘50s

             -As soon as artists started to prove themselves popular, big labels      

                started signing them

Seattle Teens

Put own spin on hard rock style

Influenced by punk

Reacted against virtuosity

Created Grunge – interested in distortion

Songs slow, lyrics very dark

Sub Pop Records

small label that supported the Grunge movement

founded by Bruce Pavitt & Jonathan Poneman


Kurt Cobain was lead – didn’t care for fame

     -Had own genius though he used emotional contrast, tremendous emotional        

       range w/i songs

influenced by Punk & Heavy Metal, Sonic Youth & Leadbelly

“Smells Like Teen Spirit”


progressive musically & politically – active in environment, social, etc

“Losing My Religion” – banned in Ireland

        -Claim it’s about unrequited love

Grunge Bands


Smashing Pumpkins

Alice in Chains


Pearl Jam


Development of Large Festivals

in 80s promoters didn’t try to cross lines w/audiences & genres

in Europe – started experimenting w/ putting things together that wouldn’t normally go together


toured 21 cities, yearly event

featured Rap, Metal, Alternative

millions attended

supposed to be festival for alternative music – different genres together

by 1993 – corporate sponsorships, started to go mainstream

-Alternative Nation created to get back to alternative roots

2010 included Lada Gaga…not alternative.

Nine Inch Nails

Involved in Lollapalooza

Wrote song “Hurt” – covered by Johnny Cash

Butthole Surfers

Acid Rock – very few chords

influenced by Metal & Rap

also on original Lollapalooza tour

Red Hot Chili Peppers

combine Hip-Hop, Thrash, Rock, etc

Sonic Youth

influenced by Patti Smith, John Cage

1st record in 1981 – ignored by NY Press

1984 – tour of England

      -equipment malfunction –> destroyed instrument –> huge success

“Swimsuit Issue”

1995 – Lollapalooza

Alternative Nation

Screaming Trees

     Grunge, style inspired by Jimi Hendrix, sludge guitar style

Living Color

     Started as alternative group, went mainstream & did well

Faith No More

     “We Care A Lot” 

Garth Brooks


concerts had “arena rock” feel

challenge accepted norms in Nashville

“We Shall Be Free” – Gospel/Blues influence

Shania Twain

Country, Canadian

husband producer for Heavy Metal groups

stardom started before she toured – uncommon

Spice Girls

Teen Idols – popular with girls, not so much boys

not the best musicians

Victoria Beckham!

management made them stars, not talent


Aerosmith Comebacks

1) “Walk This Way” with Run DMC

2) Columbia Records offered them $30 Million

   -inspired by Creedence Clearwater Revival


Electronic dance music

heavy on synthesizers & very heavy beat

Frankie Knuckles

from Chicago

credited with starting Techno

Paul Oakenfold


brought Techno back to the States

Rage Rock

started in 90s

Woodstock ’99 antithesis to previous Woodstock

Rage Rock Artists

Limp Bizkit

Vanilla Ice – turned to Rage Rock after he was a rapper

System of a Down – real message with the rage

Latin Artists

1999 – year of the Latino musicians (population growing)

Ricky Martin

    “La Vida Loca” – Latin beat, Spanish lyrics in it

    -maintained “sexy” image, comes out of the closet later

Jennifer Lopez

    -played Selena in movie “Selena”

          -Queen of Tejano Music


Lilith Fair

festival for woman artists

more than 60 women

started in reaction to “guy” festivals like Lollapalooza