musical life
Aristocrats were starting to pursue musical performance and composition careers. In England, court musicians received a low salary and sometimes went unpaid. In order to keep musicians in service, the king had to allow them to earn extra money outside official duties. Musicians in general earned money through playing in public concerts and by publishing their compositions. Copyright laws were weak so sometimes they would get jipped.
Way of categorizing Bach’s music; stands for Bach-Werke Verzeichnis (Bach Works Catalogue)
Latin for “whatever you please”; composition or passage in which two or more existing melodies or parts of melodies are combined in counterpoint. (last variation of the Goldberg Variations is an example of this –> combined two popular song melodies in counterpoint above the bass of the theme)
Handel education/career
Secretly practiced music. Studied under Friedrich Wilhelm Zachow and became an accomplished organist and harpsichordist. Studied violin and oboe, counterpoint. Studied at the University of Halle where he was appointed cathedral organist. Moved to Hamburg (Opera Central) where he wrote his first opera. Traveled to Italy where he became known as a promising composer. Spent the rest of his life in London. Wrote Italian operas for the London theaters then turned to writing oratorios in English. Also published instrumental music
Florid vocal ornamentation
A movement or passage for such a group in an oratorio, opera, or other multi-movement work; refrain
Instrumental Works (Handel)?
Water Music, Royal Fireworks Music, 24 oratorios, 40 Italian operas; odes, anthems, and other sacred vocal music; 100 Italian cantatas, 45 concertos, 20 solo sonatas, numerous keyboard pieces…
German Synthesis
Bach absorbed into his works all the genres, styles, and forms of his time and gave them a new potential. A blending of many different elements.
Music Copying
Used as a way to learn different musical styles; borrowing music was common at this time. It was borrowed from the composer him/herself or another composer and reworked
Instrumental Music (Bach)?
St. Matthew/St. John Pasions, Mass in B Minor, Brandenburg Concertos, Well-Tempered Clavier, Clavier-Ubung, A Musical Offering, The Art of Fugue, 200 church cantatas and 30 secular cantatas, 200 organ chorales and 70 other works for organ, and many other keyboard, ensemble, orchestral, and sacred compositions
Recitative Accompagnato
accompanied recitative; used stirring and impressive orchestral outbursts to dramatic tense situations. These interjections reinforced the rapid changes of emotion in the dialogue and punctuated the singer’s phrases (Handel)
Influences (Handel)
*pg 455 Scarlatti (Cantatas and Operas), Reinhard Keiser (dominant opera composer in Hamburg)
Musical Rhetoric
J.S. Bach education/career
Learned violin from his father. After his father died, he studied music with his older brother. He spent some time in school at Luneberg where he met the organist Georg Bohm who introduced him to French repertoire.
He began his music career as a church organist. He also tutored private students in performance and composition. He was also an organ consultant. He was a court musician for the duke of Weimar (organist then concertmaster). Then he went to the court of Prince Leopold of Anhalt where he was the music director. He later became the cantor of the St. Thomas School and civic music director (this was very prestigious).
Organ Music (Bach)
Bach wrote this kind of music for Lutheran services: chorale settings, toccatas, fantasias, preludes and fugues. His influences were Buxtehude and Bohm (Noth German), Pachelbel and Froberger (central and southern Germans), Frescobaldi (Italian), and other French organists. He wrote freestanding preludes and fugues that alternated sections of free fantasia with fugues that was consistent with the style of Buxtehude. Vivaldi’s influence is evident in his preludes and fugues. *Read pg 442-444
Erdmann Neumeister introduced this new kind of sacred work: biblical, liturgical, and chorale texts set to music in the Lutheran church. Neumeister added poetic texts, intended to be set as recitatives, arias and ariosos that brought home the meaning of the day’s Gospel reading. This was referred to as the “principal composition” of the day (1700s). Bach directed the first choir to use this kind of piece. Bach wrote 58 of these each year for 4 annual cycles.
Recitative Secco
dry/simple recitative; accompanied by basso continuo, set stretches of dialogue or monologue in as speech-like a fashion as possible
Waning of Opera
Messiah Libretto
considered unusual –> instead of telling a story, it unfolds as a series of contemplations on the Christian idea of redemption using texts drawn from the Bible beginning with the Old Testament prophecies and going through the life of Christ to his resurrection.
Harpsichord Music (Bach)
This music shows the influence of French, Italian, and German models. He wrote 3 sets of 6 Suites which blend French and English characteristics and elements in his own highly personal style. Each of the English suites opens with a Prelude. In the German style, each suite contains the standard four dance movements: allemande, courante, sarabande, and gigue.
Sacred Music
Operas (Handel)
Handel devoted 36 years to composing and directing these. His blending of national styles is evident in his first: “Almira.” He imitated Reinhard Keiser, the dominant opera composer in Hamburg, in writing the arias in Italian and the recitatives in German so the audience could follow the plot. He patterned the overture and dance music after French models and incorporated German elements in the counterpoint and orchestration.
Handel wrote these in English. His most important innovation in this style was his use of the chorus. His first one was in English was “Esther.” They were performed in theaters. “Messiah” is an example of this.
This practice was common during the baroque era. Bach often did this with music from himself or other composers. So did Handel, but he repaid with interest, finding new potential in the borrowed material.
Lyrical monologue in an Opera or other vocal work such as Cantata and Oratorio.
De capo
The most common form of aria in Scarlatti’s operas and cantatas. This term translated means “from the head” It is described to be placed at the close of the second section, instructing the performers to return to the beginning of the aria and reapeat the first section, producing an ABA form. Typically the A section includes two different settings of the same text framed by instrumental ritornellos.
A semidramatic piece for several singers and small orchestra, usually written for a special occasion. Alessandro Stradella, and innovative composer of operas and cantatas, was one of the first to write one of these.
Although these were still performed in oratories, they were also presented in the palaces of princes and cardinals, in academies, and in other institutions. They were a handy substitute for opera during Lent or at other seasons when the theaters were closed. Most of these were no in Italian rather than Latin, had libbrettos in verse, and had two sections, leaving room for a sermon or, in privat entertainments, an intermission with refreshments.
Sonata de camera/Chamber Sonata
Baroque Sonata, usually a suite of stylized dances and often began with a prelude, scored for one or more treble instruments and continuo. Developed in 1660
Sonata da chiesa/ church sonata
Baroque instrumental work intended for performance in church; usually in four movements slow-fast-slow-fast and scored for one or more treble instruments and continuo. It contained mostly abstract movements, often including one or more that used dance rhythms or binary form but were not usually titled as dances. These sonatas could be used in church services, substituting for certain items of the Mass Proper of for antiphons for the Magnificat at Vespers, and both types were played for entertainment in private concerts. Developed in 1660
Trio Sonata
The most common instrumentation after 1670 for both church and chamber sonatas. It had two treble instruments, usually violins, with basso continuo. It is known for its three-part texture, but a performance can feature four or more players if more than one is used for the basso continuo, such as a cello performing the bass line and a harpsichord with two high melody lines over basso continuo. It served many other types of solo music, both vocal and instrumental. In this type of sonata, Corelli emphasized lyricism over virtuosity. He rarely used extremely high or low notes, fas funs, or difficult double stops. The two violins, treated esactly alike, frequently cross and exchange musick inerlocking in suspensions that give his works a decisive forward momentum. A walking bass is also one of the styles Corelli has in this type of sonata.
Solo Sonatas
Corelli is known for these. They are known for their considerable virtuosity. In the Allegro movements, the solo violin sometimes employes double and treiple stops to simulate the rich three- part sonority of the trio sonata and the interplay of voices in a fugue. There are fast runs, arpegios, extended perpetual-motion passages, and cadenzas- elaborate solo embellishments at a cadence, either notated or improvised. The slow movements were notated simply but were meant to be ornamented freely and profusely.
Church Sonatas
Consist of 4 movements, often in two pairs, in the oreder slow- fast-slow-fast. Althought there are many exceptions to this pattern, it gradually became a norm for Corelli and later composers. The first movement typically has a contrapuntal texture and a majestic, solemn character. The Allegro is the second movement that features fugal imitation, with the bass line in full participant. This movement is the musical center of gravity in the church sonata. The third movement is slow and most often resembles a lyric, operatic duet in triple meter. The fast final movement are logical and straightforward. Corelli usually kept all movements of the sonata in the same key or wrote the 2nd and 4th movements in the relative minor key.
Chamber Sonatas
These usually begin with a prelude, after which two or three dances may follow as in the French suite. Often the first two movements resemble those of a church sonata, a slow movement and a fugal allegro. Some of the first movements feature dotted rhythms, recalling the French overture. The dance movements are almost always in binary form, with each section repeated, the first section closing on the dominant or relative major and the second making its way back to the tonic. Rather than sharing an almosst equal role as in the church sonatas, the bass line in the this type of sonata is almost pure accompaniment.
Corelli’s Music is marked with the sense of direction or progression that, more than any other quality, distinguishes tonal music from modal music. Jean-Philippe Rameu, the first theorist to describe the toal system, used Corelli’s musical language as the basis for his rules to of functional tonality. Suspensions and sequences helped to achieve thesense of forward harmonic motion. The circle of 5th’s was also seen in much of Corelli’s music.
added embellishment
Orchestral Concerto
A work in several movements that emphasized the first violin part and the bass, distinguishing the concerto from the more contrapuntal texture characteristic of the sonata.
Concerto Grosso
Set to a small ensemble of solo instruments against a large ensemble
Solo Concerto
Solo voice or instrument over a bigger ensemble (I think this is our modern day understanding of the term)
Tutti/ concerto gross
In both concerto and the concerto grosso designates the full orchestra. Instruction to an ensemble that ALL should play.
In a concerto or concerto grosso, designates the FULL orchestra.
Town musicians in Germany and Austria, who had the exclusive right to provide music in the city. They performed at public ceremonies, parades, weddings, and other festivities and supervised the training of apprentices.
Holding to establish doctrin and public forms of worship, favored using all available resources of choral and instrumental music in their services.
Emphasized privatedevotions and Bible readings, distrusted formality and high art in worship, and preferred simple music and poetry that expressed the emotions of the individual believer.
Strophic hymn in the Lutheran tradition, intended to be sung by the congregation.
Organ Music
Piece for keyboard instrument or Lute resembling an improvisation that may include imitative sections or may serve as a prelude to an independent fugue.
Introductory piece for solo instrument, often in the style of an imporvisation, or introductory movement in a multimovement work such as an opera or suite.
Composition or section of a composition in imitative texture that is based on a single subject and begins with successive statements of the subject in voices.
In a fugue, a set of entries of the subject.
Chorale Preludes
Relatively short setting for organ of a Chorale Melody, used as an introduction for congregational singing or as an interlude in a Lutheran church service.
Harpsichord Suite
Suits for Harpsichord. They Style was carried to Germany by Froberger, who helped to establish the allemande, courante, sarabande, and gigue as standard components of dance suits. Manuscript copies of Froberger’s suites end with the sarabande, a slow dance. In a later, posthumous publication of 1693, the oreder was revised so that each suite ends with a lively gigue, which had by then become the standard close for German suites. Many German composers, Including Buxtehude, JS Bach, and Handel, wrote suites.
Orchestral Suite
Late 17th Century German suite for orchestra patterned after the groups of dances in French Ballets and Opera.
Solo Sonata
unusual tuning of the violin strings to facilitate the playing of particular notes or chords.
In the 17th century, Germany adopted genres of opera, polychoral and concerted church music, toccata, suite, and sonata. German and Austrian composers would play key roels in developing the sonata and concerto as vehicles for advanced musical though and in forging a new international musical language. They mastered the styled=s and genres of other nations and added elements from their own traditions.
Chorale Variations
-Each phrase of the melody serves in turn as the subject of a point of imitation.
-Phrases appear in turn, usually in the top voice, in long notes with relatively little ornamentation. Each phrase is preceded by a brief imitative development in the other voices of the phrase’s beginning, in diminution.
– The melody appears in the top voice, ornamented in an imaginative manner, and the accompanying voices proceed freely with great variety from phrase to phrase.
-The melody is accompanied in one or more of the other voices by a motive or rhythmic figure not related motivically to the melody itself.
In a fuge, a passage of counterpoint between statements of the subject.
In the exposition of a fugue, the second entry of the subject, normally on the dominant if the subject was on the tonic, and vice versa. Also refers to subsequent answers to the subject.
In a fast movement of a concerto, the recurring thematic material played at the beinning by the full orchestra and repeated, usually in varied form, throughout the movement and at the end.
Diminished 7th
Middle Class Music
Naples had four of these. They were homes for orphaned and poor boys, that specialized in teaching music. Over the years, musical instruction gradually became as important as the original charitable purpose. They took on paying students as well. Their pupils made musical careers all over Europe, helping to spread Italian opera and Italian instrumental music across the continent.
Leading male roles in operas. They have increased lung capacity which made them ideal soloists that were powerful, agile voices. Most of them remained church musicians and hundreds sang on opera stages across Europe. A few even became international superstars and commanded huge fees, including Farinelli, who was raised and trained in Naples.
Neapolitan Opera
Center of Neopolitan musical life, thanks to the support of its rulers and other patrons. Allessandro Scarlatti, who wrote one or more operas almost every year, was its leading composer.
Comic Opera
see page 419
Serious Opera
see page 419
Best known Italian Composer of the early 18th century. Spent most of his career in venice. A virtuoso violinist, master teacher, and popular composer of opera, cantatas, and sacred music, he is known today primarily for his concertos, which number around 500. He was a teacher at the Pieta which was a home for orphaned illegitimate, or poor boys and girls, which were run like restrictive boarding schools an d provided excellent instruction in music to those girls who showed talent. The school paralleled with the conservatories of Naples.
Where the Pieta was that held orphaned children.
Vivaldi’s concertos have a remarkable range of colors and sonoriteies through different groupings of solo and orchestral instruments. It probably consisted of 20 to 25 instruments with harpsichord and organ for the continuo.
Standard Orchestra
20 to 25 instruments with harpsichord or organ for the continuo. the strings were divided in what was becoming the standard arrangement of violins I and II, violas, cellos, and bass viols. This was always the core group, though in many concetos Vivaldi also called for flutes, oboes, bassoons, or horns, and of which might be used as solo instruments or in the ensemble. He uses special coloristic effects, like pizzicato and muted strings.
Ritornello Form
Vivaldi concetos expand on the pattern by Torelli. Ritornellos for the full orchestra alternate with episodes for the soloist or soloists. Opening ritornello is composed of several small units, typically two to four measures.Segments can be separated from each other or combined in new ways without losing their identity as ritornello. Later statements of the ritornello are usually partial, comprising only one or some of the units, sometimes varied. (See page 423 & 424)
In the ritornello form, they are characterized by virtuosic, idiomatic playing, sometimes repeating or varying elements from the ritornello, but often presenting scales, arpeggiations, or other figuration. Many of these modulate to a new key, which is then confirmed by the following ritornello. Sometimes the soloist interupts or plays some part of the closing ritornello.
Slow movement
Vivaldi made this movement just as important as the fast movements. It is typically a long- breathed,expressive, cantabile melody, like an adagio operatic aria or arioso, to whose already rich figuration the performer was expected to add embellishments. Some of these are through-composed, and others use a simplified ritornello or two-part form.
9 collections of his concertos were published in Amsterdam, the last seven apparently printed at the publisher’s expense instead of being subsidized by the composer or a patron as was common; this shows Vivaldi’s value to his publisher and reflects the immense popularity of his concertos, especially in northern Europe. His most famous concertos are in OP.8 known as The four Seasons.Each accompanied by a sonnet perhaps written by Vivaldi himself.
Works that establish Vivaldi as a founder of the Classic symphony.
Concert Spirituel
A public concert series in Paris founded in 1725. It was a prestigious concert organization supported by Lois XV.
Harpsichord Suite
Couperin was a n organist who published his own music. His harpsichord orders, or suites, published between 1713 and 1730, were loose aggregations of miniature pieces, most in dance rhythms and in binary form but highly stylized and refined, intended as recreation for amateur performers.
Fr. Chamber music
Couperin’s works consisted of “Parnassus” or “The Apotheosis of Corelli” and the “Apotheosis of Lully” He also has a collection entitled “Les Nations”, twelve suites he called “concerts” for harpsichord where he titled the first four as “Concerts Royaux”
Fr./It. Synthesis
Couperin synthesized French with Italian Styles. Through titles, prefaces, and choice of contents for his published collections he proclaimed that the perfect music would be a union of the two national styles. Couperin admired the music of both lully and Corelli, and celebrated them in suites for two violins and harpsichord: Parnassus, or the Apotheosis of Corelli and the Apotheosis of Lully. Coupering was the first and most important French composer of trio sonatas, beginning in 1692. His collections Les Nations contains four ordres, each consisting of a sonata da chiesa in several movements followed by a suite of dances, thus combining the most characteristic genres of France and Italy in a single set.
Fundamental bass
In Rameu’s approach, each chord has a fundamental tone, equivalent in most cases to what is today called its root. This is the succession of these fundamental tones.
Ramaeu considered the triad and seventh chord the primal elements of music, and derived both from the natural consonances of the perfect fifth, major third, and minor third.
For Rameu, 7th chords provided dissonance, and triad provided consonance.
functional tonality
Tonic: the main note and chord in a key
Dominant:the note and chord a perfect fifth above the tonic
Subdominant: the note and chord a fifth below the tonic
These are the three pillars of tonality according to Rameau. The strongest progression between two chords in Rameau’s system is from a seventh chord on the dominant to a triad on the tonic, with the dissonant notes resolving by step and the fundamental bass falling a fifth. Othere falling fifth progressions are almost as strong, and indeed motion by falling fifth is more common than any other.
When a piece could change key by this process. Each piece had one principal tonic to which other keys were secondary.