Bay Psalm Book
Book of songs with minimal instruction on how to sing that was brought over by pilgrims to the US.  First to be published (even over Bible).
Wiley Housewright
Chair of the Goals and Objectives (GO) Committee.  Said that since music was worthwhile to society, it should be important to schools, and that ALL music is important and should be taught.  COMPREHENSIVE MUSIC was everything.
Visions 2020
A meeting that defined the role of music education in the 21st century, or how music education should look by 2020.  In many ways, 2020 was a failure, other than that other groups (finally) started to talk to one another.
Brown vs. Board of Education
(Topeka, KS.)  Brown, a colored woman, wanted to send her kids to a better school (a white school), and BOE said, “…uh, no.”  Sued them all the way up to the Supreme Court.  Ended up desegregating everything and mixing up schools.  Busing occured to help send students to different school.
School Choice

Allows students to attend any public school within or outside their school district, a magnet or charter school, a private school or homeschool.


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Because tax-paying parents wanted to send their children to whatever school they chose, people are (again) sending their children to schools based on religion, people, race, and status.

Magnet Schools

When parents wanted control over the curriculum being taught in the classrooms of Traditional Public schools, they created the Magnet Program.



  • Specific curriculum
  • Tax-funded
  • Governed by School Board
  • Certified Teachers
  • FCAT
  • DOE


Charter Schools

Parents went beyond Magnet Schools, and now they can officially govern the school.  Fastest growing type of public school in US.



  • Very specific curriculum
  • Tax-Funded
  • Governed by charter (which is like the schools constitution that can be made up by teachers, community, parents, admin, businesses, etc.)
  • Certified teachers
  • FCAT
  • DOE


Home schooling

By FAR, parents are choosing to homeschool their children in the US.  There wasn’t any music, but their starting to find ways to implement it.



  • Very limited curriculum
  • Fees (if any)
  • Parent-run
  • Parents don’t have to be certified
  • No FCAT
  • No DOE



State Department of Education.  Responsible for certifying teachers.
Progressive Era

This period was marked by the general belief that society could be managed by scientific organizations.  Schools were viewed as a means for perpetuating prosperity and as sources to resolve social problems.  The public was so interested in music that they would huddle around the radio listening to music appreciation contests.

Sorting Machine Model
During the Progressive Era, schools began to offer more advanced training for younger students who were not yet ready for more advanced training in high schools.  Schools began to successfully use music offerings to attract students
Merriam’s Functions of Music
Alan Merriam defined 10 broad ways in which music functions in every society throughout the world.  In essence, he demonstrates why all humans need music.  Stated that music is everywhere humans exist, and has been everywhere humans existed.
Common School Model
Based on the democratic ideal that everyone should have access to the same educational opportunities.  Education in intended to improve the quality of life for all individuals.  The goal in to prepare all students to function equally in society and have an equal opportunity to obtain a vocation after graduating.  Assumed that this model would eliminate social class differences.
The act of treating particular groups of people unequally.
Represents an attitude resulting in a generalization or irrational judgement regarding a category of people.  Can be both positive and negative.
An irrational idea or perception of a particular group or category of people.  These reflect learned cultural values, and they become part of our thinking process.
After Brown vs. BOE, busing began to ship students from certain schools to others in order to “mix it up.”
Local Power Influence Structure

Teachers:  Music teachers have the power to choose the music and how to teach it.


Principals:  Due to Site Based Management (which allows all power to the principal), the principal can decide what’s best for his/her school in choosing teachers, curriculums.  Have enormous power.  Commands teachers.


School Board/Super Intendant:  They give instructions to principals.  School board is elected and represents communities.  Decides programs.

State Power Influence Structure

DOE:  (State) Department of Education.  Responsible for certifying teachers.


Commissioner of Education:  Jim Smith.  Gets his orders directly from Govenor.  (Used to be Charlie Crist, but is an appointed position.)


Govenor:  Charlie Crist.  Head dude person.

National Power Influence Structure

DOE: (Federal)


Secretary of Education




Technically speaking, federal govt. has no actual power in education, so their way of sneaking in is setting up programs that provide money for the schools, like free and reduced lunch and Headstart.  That’s why we have the “No Child Left Behind” act.  You don’t do the federal govt’s. program, no extra mulah for you.

Goals and Objectives (GO) Project
One of two results from the Tanglewood Symposium, and one of the leaders was Wiley Housewright.  It identified all forms of music, including “popular” music of the “youth,” folk music, as well as classically oriented music as legitimate and deserving the attention of music education and inclusion in school curricula.
Why is school choice such a big issue in our society? Can you state three reasons why society is so negative about public schools? What are the issues associated with school choice that may influence the music classroom?
School choice is such an issue for many reasons. Overcrowding of some schools that are “better,” undercrowding of others, a sort of segregation in of itself, in the sense that people send their kids to schools where the people think the same, maybe look/dress the same, have the same beliefs, etc., and children don’t really get to interact and mingle and learn from others.

Society is so negative about public schools because: 1.) They don’t believe teachers are competent, 2.) Every individual has their own view of what curriculum should be taught in the schools and how it should be taught, and 3.)

The number one growing public school are charter schools, and the number one growing private schools are homeschools. Because each of those has such a specific curriculum in place, music more often is being left out. Also, since charter schools are growing the fastest, and they are a public school, they also get governement money. And schools are funded by the enrollment number, so if less students are enrolling in traditional public schools, that means that there’s less money to pay for music programs, which means less jobs in the music field.