Musical Change in the 19th Century
-Messages/stories of revolution
-Public ceremonies and revolutionary hymns
-Gov’t supports opera houses
-Industrial revolution changes instruments
-Paris Conservatoire established in 1795
Beethoven’s Early Period (1770-1802): Bio
-Born in Bonn: trained by father
-Service of Maximilian Franz
-Moved to Vienna (1792) to study with Haydn
-Studied ctp and gained more patrons/acclaim
-Sold music, played publicly, taught
-Large quantity of piano works (amateur)
Beethoven’s Early Period (1770-1802): Music
-Sonatas (pathetique, 13) resemble Clementi: octaves, thick changes, diverse dynamics
-Larger/heavier (instrumentation, contrast, mvmts)
-Melody: move between voices
-Harmony: complex/unconventional key relations
-No more filler and more minor keys
Beethoven’s Middle Period (1802/3-1816): Bio
-Strong, established financial backing
-Heiligenstadt Testament
-Peak of popularity in 1814
Beethoven’s Middle Period (1802/3-1816): Music
-Style/form rooted in tradition: Expanded or used in novel ways
-Symphonies 3-9
-Eroica (1803/4): Music as drama, thematic links, step progressions
-5th symphony (1807/8): Grapple with fate
-Pastoral Symph (1808): Country program music
-Rasumovsky Quartets (op. 59)
-Fidelio (only opera)
Beethoven’s Late Period (1816-1827): Bio
-Less public works and conducting due to deafness
-Most music meant for connoisseurs
Beethoven’s Late Period (1816-1827): Music
-Conventional form/order rejected
-Multi-movement editions
-Simplified theme (non-decorative decorations)
-Exploration of ctp and fugue
-More lyrical, less goal-oriented
-Abrupt changes and juxtapositions
-Continuity: weak beat cadences, blurred phrases, song cycles as a genre
-9th symphony
-Missa Solemnis
-Last 5 piano sonatas/string quartets, Diabelli variations
New Order and the Romantic Generation
-Aristocracy suffered, middle class grew (war/inflation)
-Musicians now made money publicly
-Niche in specialization: virtuosos
-Music became an outlet for middle/upper classes: Relieved social pressures
-Improvements in the piano: speed, quality, range
-Boom in publishing: Lithography (1796)
Romantic Music
-Composers respected conventions of form/harmony while exploring new realms
-instrumental music viewed as an autonomous art
-Absolute/characteristic vs. program
-Melody: more lyrical, quick tempo, reflective/expressive, homophonic folk tunes, fusion of shorter motives (compound)
-Harmony/Tonality: chromaticism and modal mixture, prevalence of minor keys, regular use of all keys, avoidance of cadences, use of modes
-Rhythm: greater rhythmic freedom, cross-rhythms (hemiolas), tempo rubato (flexible)
-Sonority: Rise of woodwinds, instruments matched with characters/ideas, adaptation/improvement of instruments
-Romantic sonata cycle: 4-mvmt pattern, scherzo as third (Beethoven) instead of minuet, varied themes in sonata-allegro
-Rise of form: Theme-and-variations, ternary
Schubert (1797-1828): Bio
-Born in Vienna: Surrounded by music
-Studied piano, singing, violin, organ, ctp, and figured bass
-Highly devoted to composition
-Widely performed in Vienna by 1821
-Most of his $ was made via publications
-Died at 31 from syphilis
-Composed nearly 1000 works
Schubert (1797-1828): Music
-Strophic, Modified Strophic, or Through-composed
-Lieder/Ballad: Elements of supernatural, speak in first person, strophic poems (music is through-composed)
Harmony: Parallel M/m shifts, abrupt, mirror emotion; Neapolitan relations; mediant relationships (common tones) related to key image in poem; modulations move flatward (don’t emphasize dominant/sharp; D7th/A6th chords
-Melody: Lyrical/closed, elements of Viennese dances, project any mood/nuance, attentive detail poem, word painting fulfills musical/structural function
-Accompaniment: Pictoral (evoke affekt/image), thematically linked intros/codas in the piano
-Symphonies: Lieder-like, Unfinished and Great symphonies
Schumann (1810-1856): Bio
-Studied piano from age 7 and composed early
-Studied law at university, then focused on criticism and music
-Intended to be concert pianist: syphilis/hurt hand
-Founded musical periodical Neue Zeitschift fur Musik
-Recognized Chopin’s talent
-“Band of David” and “Philistines”
-Almost all music befor 1840 was for piano
-Married Clara in 1840
-Post-1840 focused on lieder genre: Dichter liebe and Frauen liebe und-leben
-Died in asylum near Bonn in 1856 after a suicide attempt 2 years earlier
-Central influences: Literature (Jean-Paul), Dance (Vienna), Tactile
Schumann (1810-1856): Music
-Evocative titles meant to stimulate imaginations
-Used ciphers in notation (Asch)
-Unity with diversity
-Papillions:Dances, levels of sophistication (enharmonic tricks, canons, metrical dissonances), occasional virtuosity, self and other quotation, self-portraits, programmatic finale, literary illusions, title (superficial and symbolic)
-Famous Song cycles: Dichter liebe and Frauen liebe und-leben
Chopin (1810-1849): Bio
-Born near Warsaw, first published at age 7
-Polish nationalist, virtuoso, dreamer, technical master, effeminate, salon composer
-Left for paris in 1831 and met leading musicians
-Piano teacher
-Died of TB
Chopin (1810-1849): Music
-Ballade: Sagas, first to describe an instrumental piece, barcarolle, canons, step progressions, compound melodies, out-of-phase return
-Nocturnes: short mood pieces w/ embellished melodies and sonorous accompaniments, attributed to John Field
-Etudes: 27 total, used to develop specific technique/skill
Orchestral Music in the 19th Century
-Central to public concert life
-Concert orchestras, opera houses, theatres, cafes, and dance halls
-Grew from 40 to 90 players
-Change in instruments: Improvements in woodwind keys/tuning, extended range in winds; addition of English horns, bass clarinets, tuba, and contra-bassoons; valves added to horns/trumpets; bass drum and triangle added to timpani (Turkish)
-Conductor plays more important role
-Mixed classes in audience
-Rise of classical repetoire: serious concert behavior (silence), built legacies
Chamber Music in the 19th Century
-Also saw rise of masterpieces and classical music
-Serious as symphonies
-Schubert’s quartets