preparation, suspension, resolution; any voice; typically strong beat
resolves up a.o.t down
accented, unprepared neighbor; resolves by step
escape tone
step into, leap out of in opp. direction
double neighbor note
step up, leap down, step up, resolve up. -OR- step down, leap up, step down, resolve down.
backwards suspension; note/chord appearing early; typically approached by step and resolves by not moving
pedal tone
one note doesn’t move for 3 beats
Dominant 7 (Mm7)- 7th wants to drop, leading tone wants to ascend; can dbl root, omit 5th
passing 7th- means of introducing V7- pt should step from doubled root
mm7- wants to move to dominant- ii65 much more common
ii 1/2dim 7
dim traid w/ m7- dissonance needs to descend
vii 1/2dim 7
only 3rd free to move; most likely acting as some other key’s ii 1/2 dim 7; exists in major; waiting to become V65
only 3rd free to move; exists in minor
cross relation
two version of same note in chords
authentic cadence
__–>I- typically V-I; could use substitute dominant
perfect authentic cadence
both chords in root position
imperfect authentic cadence
one of chords inverted, viidim replaces V, or highest voice is not the tonic
deceptive cadence
V–>vi; actually not a cadence, a delay of arrival of real cadence; in minor vi is flatened; double the 3rd of vi chord
half cadence
__–>V; typ approached by subdom or dom prep. chord; intended to sound temporary
phrygian half cadence
plagal cadence
IV–>I; tacked on after a more powerful/convincing ending
not end of an idea- smaller unit w/in phrase- for ex phrase split by breath marks
phrase overlap
ending of 1 phrase is beginning of next
(antecedent-consequent)- group of 2 phrases w/ harmonic connection
parallel period
material of 2 phrases is parallel
repetition/variation of musical idea followed by movt toward a cadence
repetition/variation of musical idea followed by movt toward a cadence
1st inversion doubling
best to double 1 or 5, except: dim triad in 1st always doubles 3rd
cadential 64 chord
I64-V-I; decorative for V chord; double the bass, resolve down
passing 64 chord
step in, step out in same direction; bass moves by step; exists bt 2 similarly functioning chords