< crescendo
gradually louder
> decrescendo, diminuendo (dim.)
gradually softer
mp mezzo piano
medium soft
mf mezzo forte
medium loud
pp pianissimo
very soft
ff fortissimo
very loud
b [note with horizontal dash beneath it]
– tenuto
hold for full value, stress
which are the primary triads
the I, IV and V chords
|_________| (a long line with bars on each side)
damper pedal: the pedal on the far right; depress and release the damper pedal
play eight notes (one octave) higher
play eight notes (one octave) lower
1. 2.
first and second endings
exact repeating of note or rhythm patters in the same voice and on the same pitch
sharps (#), flats (b) or naturals (#) placed before notes, usually to indicate a note which is not in the key signature