p piano
f forte
b accent
> (placed below or above a note)
play louder, stressed, marked
^ (curved arc over a few notes)= slur
indicates legato – to play smoothly
| or . staccato
not connected, crisp
tie [curved line beneath connecting notes of the same pitch across measures/bars
hold for full value of both notes (do not press again the same note)
:|| repeat sign
play the music again
symbols or terms that indicate loud or soft
the end
D.C. al fine OR da capo al fine)
return to the beginning and play to the “fine”
^ fermata [umbrella over dot over note)
hold longer
rit., ritard., ritardando
gradually slower
a tempo
return to the original tempo
bar line
line separating measures
the space and notes between one set of bars
treble clef
upper set of lines on grand staff E-F
bass clef
lower set of 5 lines on grand staff of notes G-A
grand staff
two sets of five lines composed of treble and bass clefs, brace and measures