What is rhabdomyolysis
serious syndrome due to direct or indirect muscle injury. breakdown of muscle fibers and release of their contents into the blood stream, can lead to kidney failure.

causes of rhabdomyolysis


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alcohol and illegal drug use

extreme muscle strain

crush injuries

corticosteroids statins

symptoms of rhabdomyolysis

painful, swollen, bruised, or tender areas of the body

muscle weakness or trouble moving arms or legs

illness feeling, nausea, vomiting

confusion, fever, dark urine, reduced urine output

What is muscular dytrophy (MD)
genetic disease in which the muscle fibers are usually susceptible to dmg which makes them progressively weaker. Most people will end up being in a wheel chair.
How do you identify MD?
Muscle biopsy
What happens when a fracture occurs?
surrounding soft tissue is damaged and the nurse needs an accurate and concise description of the injury.
Clinical manifestations of fractures
deformities, swelling, bruising, muscle spasm, pain, tenderness, loss of function, crepitus, shock
what is a greenstick fx
incomplete fracture in which the bone is bent. happens most often in children
what is a transverse fx
the break is at a right angle to the bone’s axis
what is an oblique fx
the break has a curved or sloped pattern
what is a comminuted fx
bone fragments into several pieces