Lady MacBeth Scandal
Too sexual

Stalin hates this opera
Not socialist realism-
Division of classes
Sergey represents the working class- not morally correct
banned for many years after
Schos toned it down later

prepared piano
One that is manipulated- screws, paper, woodblocks
quartet for the end of Time by Messian
Wrote it in a concentration camp- Gorlitz
-was an organist
-was mystical catholic
Nature vs. Heaven
Rhythmic and harmonic ostinatos would take 4 hours for them to line up again
(clarinet and violin-bird song
cello and piano- rhythmic ostinatos)
Hailed as a war hero after his return
Social Realism
Soviet Union
music for everyone
made the Union look really good
equality for all
Bordering propoganda
How things are depicted- how the working class is depicted- their struggle is depicted with realism
Right after the New Deal is put into place
Music for everyone
Using folk ideas
in the States
Federal Music Project- helps musicians
Neue Sachlichkeit
New Objectivity (post expressionism)
reaction against expressionism
cool and cold

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Total serialism
Tone Rows- not only pitches, but rhythms and durations, the form itself, and instrumentation
serialism to the MAX
Aleatoric music
John Cage
Chance music
Feldman, Earl Brown, Yoko Ono
Stochastic Music
Same overall effect regardless of what order smaller events occur
Talked about Xenakis (coined the term) – mathmatician and composer and Architech (1950s/60s)
Sound Mass Composition
Penderiski- Threnody: to the Victims of hiroshima
compositions based on blocks of sound (harmonic/texture)
Gebrauchsmusik and how Hindenmith relates
Music for ameteurs
Hindenmith is sympathetic to the working class and all people
Music to sing and to play for everyone
Square root form
Major figures in the development of total serialism
Figures of the Drumstadt School
Boulez, Maderna, Nano, Stockhousen
Figures of the New York School
John Cage, Yoko Ono, Morton Feldman, Earl Brown
Studio D’Essai (Paris)
Pierre Schaeffer, Henry
(Xenakis works here for a while)
(stockhousen and Boulez are in and out)
“Musiqu Concrete” philosophy – all sounds are taken from real life (non-musical)
Change name to GRM later
Studio for Elektronicshe Musik (Germany)
Werner Meyer Eppler and Herbert Eimert
Philosophy- All sounds are computer generated
“Electronicshe Musik”
Columbia Princeton Music Center (NYC)
Ussachevsky and Luening
Babbit later gets involved
“tape music”
Any part of a musical work is indeterminate if it is chosen by chance, or if its performance is not precisely specified
Darmstadt Ferienkurse
summer course on new music in Germany
Entartete Musik
Degenerate music (German: Entartete Musik) was a label applied in the 1930s by the Nazi government in Germany to certain forms of music that it considered to be harmful or decadent.
Against Serialism and Jazz
Federal Music Project
Government agency that created jobs for musicians
essentially meaning “utility music,” for music that exists not only for its own sake, but which was composed for some specific, identifiable purpose
Groupe de Recherches
GRM- changed the name from Studio D’essai to GRM
Musique Concrete