prima prattica
structure, counterpoint—Renaissance
seconda prattica
text painting, dissonance, “affect”, music serves text
1600-1750, embellishment, showiness, frilliness, age of monarchy, (instead of city, state, it’s empire, kingdom)- patronage.
prevailing emotion of a text as portrayed by the music
Florentine Camerata
group of musicians/ connoseurs who met to discuss music and art in Florence.
a predecessor of opera, short scenes, stories that are performed at wealthy homes
solo voice supported by basso continuo
basso continuo
a notated bassline with figured bass
figured bass
system of numbers and symbols to indicate the desired chords
opera seria
1675-1800, italian, subject matters of myths and histories of antiquity, musically contained overtures, arias, recitative, de capo aria
concertato madrigal
late–instruments doing different things from the voices
genere concitato
war-life affect
“chorus” of a baroque work
grand bass
short bass pattern that repeats over the course of a work. like “pachelbel’s canon”
heinrich schutz
german composer 1585, sacred music, embraced secunda without abandoning prima
theatrical genre of 1600s england, features mixture of poetry, song, scenery, dance, instrumental music
work written by several different composers
french overture
begins with a slow introduction, moves to a fast imitative section, 17-18th century, opera, opera seria. introduction features dotted rhythm
de capo aria
ABA-second A section is ornamented
17th, 18th century. castrated singer wooo
type of theatrical entertainment in England during 1650-1700. essentially a play with a lot of music.
sacred, similar to opera, without staging, without a story. replaced operas during the Lenten season
vocal work, sacred, like what Bach wrote
accompanied recitative
recitative with strings
simple recitative
without strings
imitative entries, counterpoint, thematic variation and stacking
trio sonata
two treble instrument, basso continuo. popular in the 1700s
sonata de camera
chamber music. features dance-related music. baroque era.
sonata de chiesa
(church)… featuring a slow movement, imitative movement, popular in baroque
17th century. big forces, voices, instruments. 18th century. works, soloist contrasting against a large ensemble.
concerto grosso
baroque concerto typically featuring soloists. a work for large ensemble
small group of soloists within a concerto grosso. often 2 violins+basso continuo
in a concerto grosso, where it goes to the tutti
indicates larger ensemble
free-constructed keyboard showpiece
binary form
Louis XIV
ruled during the Baroque, divine rights of king, “I AM THE STATE” no share of power, patronized Jean-Baptiste Lully (French)
opera (beginnings)
came from the Greek manner of using melody and rhythm to sustain words (Euridice, Jacopo Peri 1600)
Claudio Monteverdi
composer, wrote Orfeo and Ariadne, served in Mantua, 8 madrigal books, mastered prima and secunda
Giovanni Artusi
theorist and composer, attacked Monteverdi’s use of dissonance in his works. controversy between old and new practice
Cruda Amarilli (Monteverdi)
opens the fifth book of madrigals. piece that Artusi attacked
Jean-Baptiste Lully
italian, patronized by Louis XIV, changed his name, founder of French opera
Phillipe Quinault
poet, teamed with Lully, created operatic genre-tragidie en musique
Lully, highlighted the dancing talents of Louis XIV, mixture of speaking and dance
tragedie lyrique
consists of overture (like French overture), allegorical prologue, five acts, entirely sung, interlude for dancing and choral songs or symphonies, Lully&Quinault
lyrical aria in tragedie en musique
recitative in the tragedie en musique
antonio vivaldi
music director of orphanage, wrote 400 concerto, 46 operas, sacred Gloria, wrote 12 motets, 2 oratorios
ballad opera
england, 18th century, contemporary songs mixed with dialogue
equal temperament
system of tuning where all half steps are equal size
intended to serve as instrumental introductions to the congregation singing of a chorale in church
handel’s most popular oratorio, old testament
Germany 1685-1759, started writing music at the Hamburg Opera House, went to Italy, then London, Messiah, oratorio
280 cantatas, organ virtuoso, did churches
pieces de clavecin
harpsichord pieces (couperin)
introduction to a keyboard work
polychoral motet
two or more choirs of singers (or instruments) alternated
London Bach
Johann Christian Bach–operas, friends with mozart
Glenn Gould
recorded the Goldberg Variations, other Bach works
coronation anthem
Zadok the Priest (Handel)
dance suite
1700s. allemande, courante, sarabande, gigue
Goldberg Variations
written for the Count Kaiserling, to be played by Goldberg