Alleluia, O Virga Mediatrix

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Composer: Hildegard Von Bingen (earliest female composer)

  • Ternary form (ABA)
  • Sacred
  • monophonic (0ne voice)
  • Genre: CHANT
  • Mellismatic setting on: Alleluia
  • Middle Ages





Gaude Maria Virgo

Composer: unknown Notre Dame School

  • Highly mellismatic
  • acapella (just voices)
  • notated polyphony
  • GENRE: organum
  • Middle Ages




Kalenda Maya

Composer: Rainbaut de Vaqueiras

  • Genre: Troubador Song (courtly love)
  • secular music
  • instrumental
  • CD-polyphonic piece
  • From quadruple to triple meter
  • Middle Ages
  • Strophic form-repetive phrases





Puis qu’en oubli

Composer: Machaut

Genre: Chanson

  • secular
  • about an unhappy relationship
  • ARS Nova: things become more complex
  • 3 voices
  • polyphony





Ave Maria

Composer: Josquin

  • Genre: Motet
  • Still polyphony (imitative polyphony)
  • homorhythm- all the voices have the same rhythm
  • The Renaissance-Sacred
  • sacred music





Pope Marcellus Mass: Gloria

Composer: Palestrina

  • monophonic intro to the piece
  • Alternation of homorrhythm and polyphonic textures
  • The Renaissance-Sacred




Ecco Mormorar l’onde

Composer: Monteverdi

  • Genre: Italian Madrigal
  • subtle and nuanced word pronouncing
  • High quality poetry
  • waves, trembling leaves, birds singing
  • The Renaissance





Fair Phyllis

Composer: Farmer

  • Genre: English Madrigal
  • The Renaissance-Secular
  • not so subtle word painting
  • pastoral setting
  • light and playful theme
  • coded eroticism




Dido and Aeneas

Composer: Purcell

  • excerpt begins with short recitative
  • Recitative: plot advances, often rapid, light instrumentation, little if no repetition.
  • Baroque Period
  • Aria has a special feature, ostinato and ground bass
  • Aria: plot stops;emotion
  • Fuller use of orchestra at the end
  • slower dramatic speech, declamation








Composer: Handel

  • Genre: oratorio
  • oratorio-sacred theme for opera
  • unstaged, no costumes
  • 2-4hrs long
  • 3 acts-christmas story, easter story, redemption of the world through faith
  • Baroque Period




“A Mighty Fortress is Our God”

Composer: Bach

  • Genre: Church Cantada
  • between 15-30 minutes long
  • church chorales, used in mass services






    Bach – “Little” Fugue in G minor for organ, BWV 578


Composer: Bach

  • Genre: Organ Fugue
  • 4-voice limitation (SATB)
  • What to listen for? opening melody in soprano, followed by alto, tenor, then bass
  • Carefully controlled imitative polyphony
  • Baroque era





Spring: First Movement

Composer: Vivaldi

  • Each has three movements
  • Allegro (fast), Largo(slow), Allegro(fast)





The perceived highness or lowness of a sound resulting from the frequency of the waves vibration.






The controlled movement of sound over time






A melody is a sucession of single pitches perceived by the mind as a larger unit (essentually a tune) so you have some high pitch sound and low pitch sound=tune






meter (quadruple, triple, duple)

triple=waltz quadruple=four beats in a measure, triple=three beats and so forth






Contour: moves up and down range: the span of pitches






main section of orchestra sound creation=vibration of songs. Bowed strings=violin, viola, cello, souble bass






playing the instrument with a bow





plucking the strings of the instrument





Flute/piccolo, oboe/English horn, clarinet/bass clarinet , bassoon/contrbassoon, saxomophone





sound or tone color





trumpet, french horn, trombone, tuba,

sound production=vibration of air







pitched:timfani, xylophone, celesta, glockenspiel, bells, chimes

unpitched: share, bass drum, cumbols, triangle, tambourine, cowbell






Pipe organ







sound produced by mechanically plucking strings






invented by bartolomeo critoforic.

expressive: key pressure affects dynamic level





performance with woodwinds, brass, and percussion





String Quartet

chamber music ensemble, consisting of two violins, two violas, or two violins , two cellos, and so forth







Woodwind quintet

clarinet, flute, oboe, bassoon, horn






Brass Quintet

two trumpets, horns, tronbone, tuba