a variety show.
Piano sheet music publishing
was the backbone of the American music industry in 1900
Tin Pan Alley Song
“Take me out the Ballgame”
Concert Band
The most popular instrumental ensemble in America in the late 1800s.
John Philip Sousa
the most prominent band leader and composer of the late 1800s, and composed “The Stars and Stripes Forever.”
Marching Band
plays a big role in the development of RAGTIME and JAZZ
The Blues
started around 1900 in the American south, some say near the Mississippi Delta area.
why we call Bules
the lyrics were about personal hardships.
Blues has a different feel than jazz and ragtime
more somber, fewer chords, simpler construction.
Race records
were recordings of black performers, targeted at a black audience.
Bessie Smith
was one of the the most famous “classic blues” singers.
John Philip Sousa
was the #1 best selling recording artist 1900-1910
Folk Music
a song that is not written down, but is sung and taught in the oral tradition.
Music in 1900
it was the song not the singing star that was the focal point, the songs were sung by whoever could carry a tune.
Ragtime Structure
modeled on European concert music
Scott Joplin
was the “KIng of Ragtime”
Becomes a trend in American popular music: whites embracing musical styles created by African-Americans.
W.C. Handy
published the piano sheet music to his original composition “Memphis Blues.”
“The Father of the Blues”
Blues in 1920’s and 1930’s
permeates jass and R&B music today
Irving Berlin
considered by some to be one of the greatest popular songwriters in American history.
In “American” verncular
uncomplicated, simple and direct
The Original Dixieland Jazz BAnd
was the first group to record jazz music on a record.
Jazz is an American art form, developed by African-Americans in New Orleans
the first Jazz
mixture of the blues, brass band music and ragtime.
Jazz often emphasizes
In jazz, the emphasis is one beats
2and4, instead of 1and 3
Jazz often has
a swing feeling
The most influential early jazz musician
trumpeter and singer Louis Armstrong
Louis Armstrong had two nicknames
“Pop” and “Satchmo”
Armstrong changed the nature if jazz
from collective improvisation to a soloist’s art.
Louis Armstrong is known
“the Father of Jazz”
Early Jazz
was the music of the younger generation and of speakeasies
The first use of the word “Jazz”
Paul Whitman
King of the Jazz
Whitman’s strategy
to “reign it in” and make jazz”refined”
the first year of the Great Depression
soft and subdued melody
Bing Crosby
was one of the best-selling recording artists of the 20th century.
Fats Waller
one of the greatest stride pianists and he was a great composer too.
Stride Piano
the stride player’s left hand “strides” from the bottom notes of the piano to the middle notes of the piano, in a somewhat “regular, repeating pattern.”
Stride pianists
style evolved from ragtime, and its key musical characteristic is the stride of the pianist’s left hand when playing.
Art Tatum
a stride jazz pianist is legally blind
Savoy Ballroom in Harlem
one of the biggest and most famous dance halls
Popular music
music that appeals to a mass audience
popular music blurs racial economic geographical cultural and class boundaries but ultimately,___________ rules for better or worse.
the marketplace
the act of listening to music changed
music used to be necessarily a social experience
a short rhythmically interesting melodic idea
a group of notes sounded simultaneously
how loud or soft the music is
An african alteration of certain conventional scale tones
Blue Notes
American popular music gets the following musical features form African music: unvarying beat or other regular rhythm also several layers or rhythmic activity which often create ___________ and other forms of rhythmic conflict.
Anglo-American folk dance music in the 1800s had the following musical qualities: Verse/Chorus form rough and untrained singing voice, melody set to a danceable beat, story told in everyday language, down-home ________ attitude.
good humored
In the 1800s, one difference between Urban European and West African music was that Urban European music often had a long flowing melodies and West African music had short ________ phrases ending in long notes
________ common ground between urban European and West African music traditions
Very little
During slavery, _______ were outlawed on the southern plantations-slave owners feared they could be used as a means of communication.
__________ was the most important American popular songwriter in the 1800s. He wrote “Oh Susanna” and “Camptown Ladies” and alsp wrote songs for minstrel shows.
Stephen Foster
Parlor Song: well off families in the 1800s who could afford a piano and piano lessons would gather after dinner in the “parlor: and entertain themselves by playing parlor songs. Parlor songs were intended to be classical and artistic sounding, _________ and were distributed in the form of piano sheet music.
but not too hard to sing or play
________ an entertainment show, popular in America in the 1800s, consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing and music often stereotypically portraying the lives of blacks on southern plantations. There were white minstrel troupes, and black minstrel troupes, both performing in “black face”. They were very popular but were eventually died out in favor of the “vaudeville” shows of the early 1900s.
Minstrel Shows
Minstrelsy was a distressing and unfortunate area of American History. However, the minstrel show is significant to popular entertainment history for a number of reasons: It allowed for cross-cultural collaboration which although has a history of ______________ lead to widespread appreciation appreciation of African_American contribution to arts and expression.
misuse and abuse
The first recorded __________ performances can be traced back to the early 1600s in William Shakespeare Othello out of necessity; black people were not allowed to perform on Stage and had limited rights in Europe.
British actor __________ is considered of be the father of American Minstrelsy, he toured the southern slave states to create a one-man minstrel show in 1822. He also invented the pun filled “stump speech” after listening to a southern preacher
Charles Matthews
Unfortunately, many minstrel performers claimed that their productions were “authentic” accounts of black southern life and their characters were based real people. Creator of the plantation dancer character know as Jim Crow, Thomas Rice claimed to have seen a disabled black man dancing in Kentucky. It was with the song entitled “___________” written by RIce in 1828 that truly popularized blackface minstrelsy in the United States
Jump Jim Crow
1844 Ethiopian Serenaders perform
at the White House
One troupe in particular, Christy’s Minstrels, standardized their performance into three acts. The first act opened with a song then featured wisecracking bather between the straight-man master of ceremonies and the more comic and silly music performers. This chitchat act later lead to duo-type performances between “Mr. Tambo” and “Mr. Bones”. The second act featured a fractured play or a dance performance with a featured guest of high talent like William Henry Lane or John Diamond. The third act usually opened with ___________ and a large musical number using all the dancers and musicians. This show pattern can be seen in between the bandleader and the host.
pun filled stump speech
Music was a central aspect of the minstrel show. For many white northerners, the minstrel shows were their only glimpse into black southern slave life, music, food and culture. Though skewed and unrealistic, the performances brought issues of slavery to the hearts and minds of white Americans. Popular musical instruments such as the banjo, tambourine, and bones taken form Black-American culture were fashionable due to the popularity of minstrel shows. The melody, lyrics and structure of many songs used in minstrelsy were assimilated form slave spirituals and African-American cultural expression. Some shows, like Ethiopian Serenaders, attempted to keep to clean and inoffensive material. The focus of their show was to feature talent rather than slapstick and bawd jokes. However, most shows featured grossly distorted characters of African Americans being stereotyped as lazy, superstitious, and happy-go-lucky. Skit and song subjects often featured a grossly inaccurate depiction of slave life and using a humorous view of the mistreatment of slaves. A common song theme featured ________________.
a runaway or freed slave missing his master
The Cakewalk: Dance became an important element of the minstrel show. For example, the cakewalk was a dance invented by slaves imitating _________________.
the white slave owners
In 1876, Calendar’s Minstrels was the first all-black cast to ___________________.
perform blackface without make-up.
It is believed that over 3500 black men were ________________ between the years 1880 and 1951.
Lynched by mobs
1924 Paul Robeson kissed the hand of a white actress in “All God’s Children Got Wings” causing outrage. To avoid mixed race casts, many Broadway production houses called for black roles to be filled by ___________________.
Hispanic actors
The racist organizations made life in the south extremely uncomfortable and dangerous for many black Americans and many chose to move north were they had more opportunities. This movement is called the ______________.
Great Migration
By the turn of the century there was a growing black middle and upper class, opening new businesses and property ownership in a neighborhood in New York City knowns as Harlem. The area became the epicenter to artists, musicians, intellectuals and more during the period known and the Harlem Renaissance a term coined by ______________.
Alain Locke
___________ featured a string of entertaining acts including acrobats, animal acts, dancing, songs, magicians, comedy, and other performances. Blackface performances were common feature but it remained isolated to a skit or a song and did not dominate the entirety of the show.
In the 1930s, ______________ looked to produce positive images of African Americans.
Intellectuals and small radio stations
Meanwhile, ____________ became the first African-American Disk Jockey (DJ); he made his radio debut in 1922 on KDKA Washington DC as the “one man Minstrel Show.” He worked until 1961 as a DJ, announcer, actor, newscaster, and other radio roles.
Jack L. Cooper
___________ was a radio show geared towards African-American WWII soldiers and featured the best black performers of the ear. After serving with distinction, African-American sought a greater role in America and a balanced representation of black people in film, television, and old time radio shows
Very few black actors were able to find respectable dramatic roles, Paul Robeson was one of the first celebrated dramatic African-American actors in theater and film. Born in 1898, Robeson excelled academically and was involved in singing, acting, and athletics at Rutgers University. He could converse, singing perform in over ___________ languages.
Meanwhile, mainstream broadcasts including traditional stereotype of African AMericans continued into the 1950s. Although Amos n Andy is cited most often as an example of blackface radio performances, there were other minstrel-type old time radio shows like Beulah and Aunt Jemima. Both Beulah and Aunt Jemima radio shows were based on the “Mammy” stereotype that was ______________ in 19th century minstrel shows and 20th century films.
A New World A Coming which is a show called for _______________ for a better world.
improved race relations
“Amos n Andy” faced a firestorm of criticism, most notably from the ____________.
Performing in blackface continued to be normalized. Many well-known entertainers of stage and screen also performed in blackface including _____________________.
Judy Garland
The American Society of Authors and Publishers (ASCAP) and the National Association of Broadcasters (NBA), all the nation’s radio stations with affiliations to the major networks _____________ that was composed and written by ASCAP members — VIrtually all of the American music written in first half of the twentieth century.
stopped playing music
So because of the ban, the early 1940’s saw a rise in country music and western swing airplay one the radio, resulting in ________________ as well as some music and songs from other countries.
the increased popularity of western music
Beginning at midnight, July 31, 1942 no union musician could _________________.
record for any record company
The AFM strike of 1942. THese recordings were called _____________.
IN the 1930s and pre-stile 1940s, big bands dominated popular music; after the strike, __________ dominated popular music.
A second consequence of the ban on recording was that a new musical style, known later as _________________.
Swing music also known as simply swing is form of _________ music that developed in the early 1930s and became a distinctive style by 1935 in the United States.
Swing uses a strong rhythm section of double bass and drums as the anchor for a lead section of brass instruments such as trumpets and trombones, woodwinds including saxophones and clarinets and sometimes stringed instruments such as violin and guitar, medium to fast tempos, and a “________________” swing time rhythm.
Swing bands usually featured soloists who would ___________ on the melody over the arrangement.