Before jazz but similar to march; showed that European music was not so squarish
call and response
a leader who sings something out and everyone repeats or sings it back
Scott Joplin
the king of ragtime, the first very significant African American composer who wrote all kinds of rags. Very big in 1890s. His popularity waned very quickly because ragtime became old-fashioned very quickly
Songs of the African American Church. Same as blues, but saying God and Lord a lot.
Dixieland Jazz
first type of jazz that is formed in new Orleans. Consists of trumpets, clarinets, trombone, tuba, sometimes string base, drummer, sometimes piano. Component includes a breakup part, showing the influence of march (the breakup also creates more tension)
12 bar blues
3 sung lines, 1 bar or 1 measure is 4 beats., harmonic structure/chord progression that blues starts to take toward the turn of the 19th century.
lead sheet notation
Shorthand notation where only the melody is written out. The letters/chords for the melody
fake book
the collection of jazz tunes that every musician should know.

2 elements.

Hire a custom writer who has experience.
It's time for you to submit amazing papers!

order now

1. Bare elements of the tunes and you fake your way through it
2. It’s not a legal book, not copyrighted and just passed around.

The music sheet is read/played several times in one piece- the first time, nothing is really improvised and the musicians focus mostly on the melody (pianist can improvise a little, but the other players listen and play accordingly) The second time around, harmony is emphasized. Each player in the group has a solo part.

The rise
Section where everything goes up in pitch- very small interval. (only seen in Ca Yuman)
non sense syllables, not real words (used when Native Americans sing). It can be a mixture of nonsense and real words.
49 songs
Collection of songs that are easy to learn and memorize, people sing it for fun. It usually has English words in it. It is like a folk song, sung for leisure, after dinner, etc.
incomplete repetition
each time a repetition comes around, it is not exactly the same. The beat can be left out or added. Sounds repetitive but not exactly. There is no consistent pattern.
Pow wow
Gathering of different tribes; usually where the real Native American ceremonies and culture are celebrated. Usually have singing competitions with drummers and singers from each tribe. Usually sing relaxed/leisure songs
Peyote ceremony
Practiced by the Native American church. It takes place over the course of a night- play songs and drums over night. Can be controversial because peyote (cacti buttons) can be hallucinogenic and act like a drug when consumed in the ceremony. (high, quiet voice, he-ye-no-we, and water drums make peyote have distinct songs)
water drum
Clay pot that is half filled with water, then covered with skin.
Native American Church
Combines Christianity and Native American culture/religion. They celebrate the peyote ceremony.
ghost dance
Developed in the 19th century during the “Indian Wars” against the US. Like a ceremony/ religion that takes Christianity as its basis. (Sometime in the future, a messiah will come and make things the way it was before, before the Europeans changed it) There was supposed to be a celebration of this dance at Wounded Knee SD, but US army open fired and injured hundreds of Native Americans/people. US thought the dance was a threat and tried to stop it. The dance was less popular after the incident.
Enemyway ceremony
healing ceremony for someone who has returned from a war/battle. It is a 3 day ceremony. The tribe/participants are divided into two camps. There is a home camp, the one being sung over. There is a stick receiver camp. The first 1.5 to 2 days are about friendly competition between the two camps. On the night of 2nd, the stick receiver camp camps far away so on the third dawn, they can carry out a mock raid on the home camp. There is a lot of singing of circle songs, you form a circle with the people, alternating people with the two camps. They sing these short songs that become something of competition to who can sing these songs better. They will walk clockwise, and one camp will sing a song and dance. Then they switch directions, other camp will sing and dance. There is competition, but the circle represents reconciliation. Ceremony ends when the one being sung over shoots the enemy or anything that represents the enemy.
Nightway ceremony
healing ceremony, common- not only for an individual, but for the whole village. They are different lengths from a day to 9 days. Ceremony includes a lot of singing and sand painting. Early part of ceremony involves the person who needs to healed, sung over. A lot of the early part of the ceremony is at the home of the one being sung over. Everything ends towards the last day when there is a procession to the one being song over. The procession is lead by one of the deities, Yeirbiecheii, the grandfather of the gods. Always at the end of the procession, there is a figure called the water carrier who essentially is a clown who tries to crack up the people watching and following the procession by spilling water everywhere and doing funny things- only there for comic relief.
marshall pieces, very percussive and violent pipa pieces. About battles, and violent things.
equivalent of an Amen, but for Native America Church.
Moccasin Game
very simple game the kids play. Two moccasins and two teams. Somebody in one team puts a stone in one moccasin and someone from the other team has to pick which moccasin the stone is in. Creation myth of the Navajo: at the beginning of time, the animals were figuring out whether it should be day all the time or night all time. So they decided to play the moccasin game, and it ended in a tie- so now its day half the time and night half the time. The songs usually mock other animals.
base, drums, saxophone, accordion. Really fun, dance music. Has a southwest flare. Can focus on the geographical barrier where its popular. Chicken scratch with southwest/Mexican influence
Carlos Nakai
one of the big native American flute performers. He does not play traditional music
California Yuman
low relaxed singing. Melody only has 3-4 notes. Very simple music with a pattern found in every song
very common singing styles (usually the one sang in pow wows). High, loud and intense singing. The melody starts highs and descends quickly several times.
Great Basin
Relax style of singing with exact repetition and very short phrases that are repeated.
Northwest Coast
The most distinctive music because of the different living styles and instruments. This type has very prominent flute music (although flute is not usually common in other Native American music). Polyphony is common in this music- more than one melody/voice going on together- usually one voice is lower than the other but still parallel.
Used by the Navajo with nasally singing. Consists of 1-2 notes/beat, usually ? or 1/8 notes. Very square music.
call and response is very common in this singing style.
Lute like. Has 4 strings and usually sounds like there are 3-4 pipa playing. Pluck the strings with the right hand (with a pick) and stop it with your left- the neck is curved out for drop in notes/frets. polar opposite of qin- used for entertainment of the common man. There is usually a set tune for it. Rapid playing- very fast music. Sounds like a crazy banjo.
zither, category of instrument with stings that are strung out on top of a sounding board. 7 strings on a qin, you hold strings with your left hand and pluck with your right hand (there are different ways to pluck). Been part of the scholarly, educated class. Ties with Buddhism and meditation. Very slow, and delicate music. Because of its association with the learned class, there are a lot of subtleties when playing the qin. You do not hear fast music on the qin. Simple and elegant music that is usually passed down from a teacher!
String instrument with 2 strings that sounds like a violin/viola. It creates a high but thin sound. Need a bow. When you push on one string (push in/out on the string).
flute, low sound. (one of 7 different types)
pentatonic scale
5 note scale which lacks notes that are adjacent to each other because there is always a white note in between. Gives a much more tranquil, tension free feeling. If two more notes are added, it would be a major scale. Pattern for pentatonic (skip 1, skip 2, skip 1, skip 1, skip 2)
“songs for the masses”
very catchy songs that teach you how to be a good communist (during Maos reign). It was not necessarily traditional songs, but more westernized. (ie; “we were good workers” which included the pentatonic scale, but had western orchestra and opera like singing.) An effective way of spreading the communist message.
Jiangnan Sizhu
“teahouse music.” It is very informal music, found in the big cities. Pipa and qin music. It is folk and traditional music. People usually play music in heterophony and play the music/instruments in big groups. People usually know how to play most of the songs (have it memorized) and the know how to play most of the musical instruments.
programmatic music
Music should reflect something. Can be a story or impression of something real (two birds fighting in the air, etc.) It does not have to deal with nature only.
two or more different instruments are playing the same basic melody, but they are embellishing the melody differently. (same not but different way of playing it)
Wu Man
someone who plays a lot of traditional pipa music, but also branches out. She tours constantly, and is someone who has started to cross boundaries and play with other cultural musicians (ie: African musicians, etc).
Cui Jian
An international Rock and Roll artist, “bob dylan of China.”(rock and roll music was introduced into China because of open markets) His music is very critical of the government and Chinese people (Why don’t people stand up? Why are they happy as pawns? Etc) He is passionate, but bitter about the politics. Done a lot of recording and is well known outside of China. Very critical of the government and the Chinese people for being pawns in this bizarre game and not standing up to the government. If this had been 20 years earlier, his voice would have been silenced, but because he has become an international figure, no one is going to do anything about him.
Tuvan Throat Singing
Occurs in a small, rural country (Tuva) above Mongolia (which is above China). Singers sing a pitch deep down and alter the tone by closing off their mouth and nasal cavity, etc. This results in hearing high sounds. Sing a low note, but have a high pitched melody. This is due to overtones. All notes have overtones. So there are fundamental pitches (the one being sung, and overtones, which are pitches higher than the one being sung). Then they can sing a tone and all of those partials and what you hear is a high whistle sound. Probably easier for men because they fundamentally have lower voices so there are more notes for them to choose from.
lyrical, sweet sounding pipa pieces. About nature things.
a long instrument that has moveable bridges (made of ivory) that divide the string into some kind of proportion to give different pitches. You can play on either side of the bridge giving it different pitches. All of the strings are tuned to the same note so it just depends on how you line it up. It is supposed to look like a dragon to some extent, the bridges being the spine of the dragon. It can be a very delicate instrument and plucked quietly, but it can also make very aggressive loud sounds. (similar to qin of China)
“a Japanese banjo,” three strings and does have a sound similar to the banjo. Plucked with a very large pick (held in someone’s hand) that looks like a giant dorito. There are no frets so it will be easier to bend notes/pitches.
related to the pipa from China; it has a lute shape that is different from the pipa. There are different types of biwas, some have 4 strings while others have 5 strings. Played very aggressively.
in blown (by the end of the instrument) flute made of bamboo. It is named after the instruments length. It is associated with Buddhism and meditation and different approaches of breathing. There are 3 types/different ways of playing because of its relation to Buddhism. Very slow and meditative. Hard to play (unlike the recorder). Includes vibrato, which is the wavering or spinning in the music notes (very conservative).
found in all gagaku. Double reed instrument, sounds like the obo. Very loud instrument that’s played in a very slow manner.
cousin to the shang in china; looks just like the shang; It is a mouth organ with pipes coming out of it. apparently in the past you actually played melodies on the sho, now its just played holding great big long notes, or combinations of notes; now it looks like a portable electronic organ. That sound will come in be held for a while and then disappear suddenly.
more modern theater in japan. More for people’s entertainment. Developed in the nineteenth century. Over the top. Kabuki actors have painted faces, different colors identify is the character is good or bad. The fun thing about kabuki is that they try to use every theatrical trick in the book during a performance. Acrobatics, trap doors, hidden things on stage. They have trick costumes that they wear, they can go from wearing one thing to another thing very quickly.
Oldest of the three traditions, very sparse theater. The stage will look the same for every Noh performance, very bare, a runway, and a pillar, no curtains. Music accompanies Noh theater with slow music and traditional Japanese singing that sounds a lot like moaning. Known as mask theater, see very little skin, almost everything is covered up. By covering up the entire body, the actor is disguised completely and the essence of the character is allowed to come through. The characters do different motions to convey emotions. The tempo of Noh theater moves very slowly. Everything goes at snail’s pace for a long time, then it accelerates really quickly, and then it goes back to being slow. Plots are all about morality. There is some kind of moral point to the whole plot (e.g. good vs. evil).
puppet theater. Each puppet is run by three different people, the person with least experience works the feet, the person with the next amount of experience works the right arm, the head puppeteer works the head and left arm. The puppeteers usually wear black to blend in. There are musicians who accompany the performance, and there is an instrument shamisen, then there is a narrator.
draws heavily on noh theater. Extremely stark, disturbing, visceral theater. Takes the slow speed of noh theater. Minimalized tradition with sparse and slow things. The original impulse of butoh is to be a reaction to the horror of Hiroshima. Characters are usually holding scary, screaming poses for a long time. So stark that it has nude performers. Came out as a response to WWII.
very old traditional music, the world’s oldest orchestral music: music that combines wind and instruments and percussion. Dates back to 500 and 750 AD. One of the oldest, if not the oldest. Two kinds of gagaku music.
instrumental music that uses the sho. (very slow pace)
puppet theater. Each puppet is run by three different people, the person with least experience works the feet, the person with the next amount of experience works the right arm, the head puppeteer works the head and left arm. The puppeteers usually wear black to blend in. There are musicians who accompany the performance, and there is an instrument shamisen, then there is a narrator.
religion originally from Japan, unlike other religions it has no set dogma, no real clear main belief in the religion. Developed by drawing on all kinds of local customs and rituals. The one thing that holds Shinto loosely together is ancestral worship. Couple of different kinds of music associated with Shinto. Shinto shrine festival: a big celebration, not very religious, touch the shrine and that should give you luck for the entire year. The festival helps maintain a sense of community as Japan is being more westernized.
drumming that is the opposite of traditional music. Very fast, a lot of interlocking/overlocking rhythms, very complex, drummers coordinate movement to make it exciting to watch/a good show
a way that Japanese musicians talk about Japanese music. “jo=introduction, ha=main body, kyu= rushing/hurrying to a conclusion” Jo-ha-kyu is talked about all aspects of levels from a single note to a long piece.
the kind of music you would find during a Shinto ritual or service, music tends to be simpler as the way it unfolds and is constructed.
music that goes with the Shinto shrine festival in an outdoor festival. Involves lots of flutes and drums/percussion, very outdoorsy music. It is unique to the Shinto Shrine Festival.
traditional Japanese folk music, the collection of songs before world war II, the songs that people would sing and pass down from generation to generation. In the last decade there has been a resurgence of minyo. It is sort of a nostalgic thing for all of those who have seen rapid changes in Japan and the good old days. In-pentatonic is used in minyo.
same pentatonic scale as in china, the black keys on the piano, adjacent notes on the piano. Usually found in folk songs/music.
hear it much more in traditional instrumental music, it uses half-steps on the piano (adjacent notes), in some ways kind of symmetrical