Middle Ages
* 450-1450
*it was during the fall of the Roman Empire
*Early: During a time of migration, upheavals, and wars
*middle: Romanesque churches, monasteries, and Gothic cathedrals
Late: The Crusades (1096-1291)
Hundred Years War (1337-1453)
The Black Death ( around 1350)
Type of Music Associated with Middle ages
Vocal-Gregorian Chants mostly
gregorian chant
melody set to sacred latin text and sung without accompaniment, monophonic texture
*in Gregorian chants rhythm is flexible, without meter, and little sense of beat
*melodies move by step within a limited range
* named after Pope Gregory I Reign (590-604)
Two Services that Monks sang at
Office- 8 services before sunrise til sunset
*mass-highlight of the liturgical day; reenactment of Last Supper
Church Modes
scales containing seven tones with an eighth tone duplication the first an octave higher but with patterns of whole and half steps different froma major and minor scales, used in medieval, Renaissance and twentieth century music and in folk music.
Alleluia: Vidimus Stellam: mass for Epiphany
alternates between solo and choir
*monophonic Texture
*elaborate/jubilant Gregoriant chant
Structure: ABA
The Development of Polyphony
* music began as homophonic
* b/w 700-900
2nd step: Second Melodic Line was added by Monks
* in the beginning, this second line was improvise, not written
* it duplicated the chant melody at a different pitch, the two lines were in parallel motion, note by note movement with melody at the interval of a fourth or fifth
*organum-medieval music that consists of gregorain chant and one or more additional melodic lines
*3rd step circa 1100, organum became truly polyphonic, independent lines ( diff notes and rhythms)
Ars Nova
(new art) term to refer tot he new style of French and Italian Music
– the term is used by musical theorists to describe the profound stylistic changes of italian and french music in the 14th century.
*secular music began to take importance over sacred pieces written were not based on Gregorian chant
* almost any rhythmic patten was used
**Beats coud finally be divided in two(instead of 3, for the trinity) and syncopation was used.
Prominent composer for Ars Nova: Guillame de Machaut
* musician and poet
* made sacred and secular music
*1323, secretary and chaplain to John, king of Bohemia
*wrote music for the court
***First important composers whose music survived.
*referred to as the rebirth ofhuman creativity, humanism
*return to interest in Ancient Greek and Roman Civilization
Renaissance MUSIC
* church remained important, but musical activity became a stable point for courts
*court musicians now enjoyed a higher status and pay
* a king might employ up to 60 musicians in his court
* women worked as virtuoso singers in courts
Characteristics of Renaissance music
A. Word painting- musical representation of specific poetic images. ex. the words descending might be set to a descending melodic line.
b. Texture
*chiefly polyphonic-4-6 parts
*imitation- homophonic texture with succession of chords, used in dance music
—-voice follows one another imitating shape and rhythm
——all imitation give s afullness of sound sop to bass
_——-gives a sense of balnace and clarity
*fuller than medieval
* music sounds mild and relaxed( chiefly and consonant)
*a Capella-Choral music w/o instrument accompaniment
c. Rhythm and melody
*gentle flow
*each line and rhythmic independence
*each singer must maintain an individual rhythm
*pitch pattern-easy to sing
Sacred Music
2 kinds of sacred music:
motet-polyphonic choral work set to a sacred Latin text other than that of the mass
Mass- polyphhonic choral composition made up of five sections Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei
Ave Maria
*sacred music of Ren.
*motet with varying textures
*4 voices
*changes from duple to triple meter
*outstanding renaissance choral work
*latin prayer to Virgin
*delicate and Serene
*uses Polyphonic imitation
*passes the torch
*has a feeling of continuous flow
*adopted from a Gregorian Chant
*There is a duet between sops and tenors/ basses
Secular Music
Kind of secular music is :::::
madrigal-composition for several voices set to a short secular poem usually about love combining homophonic and polyphonic textures and often using word painting
*originated in Italy(1520)
*Combination of homophonic and polyphonic textures
Word painting(as vesta)
*characteristic of sec music
word painting–musical illustration of the text.
*word: descending, is sung to dwonward scales, and ascending to upward ones.
*When Vesta’s attendants run down the hill, “first two by two, then three by three together, leaving their goddess all alone,” ——-we hear first two voices, then six voices, finally a solo voice.

***in the extending conclusing section, “long live fair oriana,” a joyous phrase is imitated among the voices. And in the bass this phrase is sung in long notes, with the longest note on the word long.

Josquin Deprez
*contemp. Leonardo Da Vinci/ Chris Columbus
*composer of Ave Maria
*from Flanders( born in Hainaut/Belgium)—also lived in it
**Many composers during Renaissance came from FAlnders
*considered a “master of Renaissance Music”
*spent much of his lfie in Italy serving in dukes’ private chapel sand in the papal choir at Rome
*Later Years, worked for Louis XII of france.
*composed sacred and secular music
* had international caree
*made masses, motets,and sec voc pieces,
*martin luther praised him
Flow My Tears
*English Lute Song
——–secular, homphonic Texture
History of the lute Song( eng. 1590-1620)
Lute-plucked string instrument shaped like a pear halve
*Renaissance music, lute song are mostly homphonic in texture
* lute accompaniment is secondary to the vocal melody.
—-solo voice plus accompaniment
*singers could accompany themselves, or have it played by another musician
——-flow my tears :::Has an expression of melancholy……in terms of renaissance in general__——————————-composers preferred not to mix instruments with Voices