Emotions. Baroque music was often composed with affections in mind to balance the ‘humors’ or emotional imbalances of people
Solo singing with instrumental accompaniment in styles of ‘aria’ or ‘recitative’
Recitative style
Speech-song. Music that follows the natural rhythm of texted lyrics.
Musical interlude on a pastoral, allegorical, mythical subject performed between acts
Court Opera
Based on humanist ideals, funded by a patron and performed for an exclusive audience
Public Opera
(in Venice) funded by the oligarchy
“Diversions”. Long interludes of ballet dancing and choral singing for entertainment
French overture
“Opening”, marked by King’s entry
Stile moderno
Freer style of counterpoint, where rules are broken, and new dissonances are allowed
Stile antico
Music developed in the ‘old style’ of Palestrina with strict counterpoint rules and polyphony
Basso ostinato
Repeated pattern in the bass. “Ground bass”
Basso continuo
Figured bass
Fundamental bass
Succession of the roots or fundamental tones in a series of chords
Sonata da Camera
Chamber sonata that is a suite of dances written for one or more treble instruments and continuo
Sonata da Chiesa
Intended for church performance in 4 movements (slow, fast, slow, fast) for one or more treble instruments and continuo
Trio Sonata
Sonata for two treble instruments above a basso continuo
Concertato medium
Voices with obligatory instrumental accompaniments
Sacred concerto
Sacred vocal work with instrumental accompaniment
Concerto grosso
Instrumental work that exploits the contrast in sonority between a concertino
Small ensemble of instruments
“full/tutti” in a full orchestra during a concerto grosso
Ritornello form
“Refrain form”. Full orchestra that alternates with episodes characterized by virtuosic solo playing
Opera seria
“Serious opera” Opera with a serious subject but usually with a happy ending.
Simple recitative
Style of recitative scored for solo voice and basso continuo in which the music is more speechlike than dramatized.
Accompanied recitative
Recitative that uses orchestral accompaniment to dramatize the text
Da capo aria
Aria with two sections. ABA form
Dramatic music combining narrative, dialogue, and commentary through arias, recitative, ensemble, choruses and instrumental music.
Composition in imitative texture based on a single subject that features the subject being stated successively in various voices.
“Touched”. Piece for keyboard instrument or lute that is improvisational
“to be sung”. Vocal chamber work usually for solo voice. Has many sections/movements that contain recitatives, arias, and lyrical text.