Pio Ospedale della Pieta
Conservatory for orphan girls where Vivaldi held the principal position, had an all female orchestra
Ritornello form
ex: Vivaldi’s Four Seasons. Meaning tune or main theme, the form contains 2 movements that are treated equally: first- contains small melodic fragments that can be manipulated and in tonic key, 2nd- slow with expressive melodies,
L’art de toucher le clavecin (The Art of Playing the Clavecin)
teaching book by Couperin on how to play the harpsichord music of that time, contains a chart for agresments, and teaching pieces at the end
Traite de l’harmonie (Treatise on Harmony)
Theory book by Rameau, based on law of acoustics, had triad and 7th chords as primal elements, defined root and inversions, strong V to I progression, pillars of harmony (V, IV, I)
fundamental bass
the idea of the roots in a succession of chords, created by Rameau in the Traite de l’harmonie
Bach’s Well Tempered Clavier
2 books of organ fugues set in all major and minor keys in succession, intended for instrument tuned in equal temperament
Bach’s Goldberg Variations
Book of 30 variations that preserve bass and harmonic structure, every 3rd variation is a canon (1st is at unison, 2nd on scale degree 2, 3rd at 3, etc.), theme is set with sarabande rhythmn
Bach’s Art of Fugue
Collection that demonstrates all types of fugal writing, 18 canons and fugues based on same subject, last fugue has 4 themes, including one that spells out BACH, many scholars believe is a study on how to write a fugue
Erdmann Neumeister
theologian and poet that created a new type of sacred work called a ‘cantata’, commonly sets bliblical, theological, and choral texts in Lutheran services
Bach’s Mass in B minor
Bach’s only complete setting of Mass Ordinary, adapted much music from earlier works, juxtaposes diverse sacred styles, too long for service so could be intended for study
Royal Academy of Music
London opera company Handel was music director for, produced only Italian opera, ex: Guilio Cesare, hired outside musicians to play, wrote for Senesino (castrato), dissolved in 1729 bc of finances/competing opera company
prima donna
principal female in Handel’s operas, top of the hierarchy and had the best and most arias
Handel’s Messiah
Handel’s most known oratorio, presents a mixture of Christian ideals but doesnt tell a story, reflects a mixture of musical styles: French overture, Italian recits and dc arias, Germanic choral fugues, and English choral anthem styles
Classical style
Characterized by frequent cadences, applied principles of rhetoric and grammar, broke up melodic flow with with sucession of short (2-4 meas.) phrases, hierarchy of cadences, changing mood
Intellectual movement applying reason to issues of emotions, social relations, and politics, belief in equality, naturalness, individual rights, and universal education, increased middle class learning and arts
Social reformers in France that helped begin the Enlightement
Galant style
everything modern & sophisticated, became foundation for music mid-late 18th c; melodies built from repeated motives and short phrases combined into larger periods, harmonies simple w/frequent cadences
Empfindsamer stil
sentimental style originated in Italy but made pop in Germany, closely associated with CPE Bach, characterized by surprising turns of harmony, chromaticism, and speech-like melodies
new melodic style breaking up melodic flow with short distinct phrases (2-4 mes.) long, with 2 or more making up a period, characterized by frequent cadences, applied principals of grammar and rhetoric
Opera Buffa
Italian comic opera, full length, sung throughout, 6 or more characters, funny but teach a moral lesson, many often stock characters, dialogue in rapid recit. w/continuo, tuneful arias in galant style in dc form
short, comic, musical interlude btw acts of opera or play, plots involved ordinary people, includes 2 singing roles and 1 non-singing, ex: La serva padronna by Pergolesi
Querelle des bouffons
Quarrel of the comic actors, pamphlet arguing the merits of french v. italian opera, debate sparked by presence of Italian opera troupe in Paris
Opera seria
simple melodic style , form established by Metastasio, sought to promote morality through entertainment, characters from ancient Greek/Roman tradition, end with heroic deed or benevolent acts (meant for King to see and learn lesson), usually 3 acts, alternates btw recits & arias, recits develop action through dialogue, ex: Cleofide by Johann Adolf Hasse
da capo form
2 stanza text; A section, ritornello, B sect, return of A section
Opera comique
french comic opera; used simple pop tunes called vaudevilles, spoken dialogue instead of recit,
Ballad opera
pop opera in England, in English, spoken dialogue, peaked in 1730s, remained influential in Britian & America; ex: The Beggar’s Opera (satirizes London society)
German comic opera, ft-spoken dialogue, musical numbers, and comedy, influenced by English ballad opera, eventually merged with serious opera in N.Germany
Couperin’s Orderes
synonym to ‘suite’, each contains a number of mini works, based on a dance rhythm & in binary, Couperin publised 25, titles begin ambigious but move to being creative; ex: Vingt-cinquieme ordre
Bach’s prelude and fugues
modeled after Buxtehude’s toccatas, ex: Prelude in A m; free section, fugue section, free section
Bach’s prelude and fugues
modeled after Buxtehude’s toccatas, ex: Prelude
Bach’s chorale preludes
played before each chorale, composed over 200, collected in Orgelbuchlein (Little Organ Book); ex: Durch Adams Fall; used fortspinning
church cantatas
created by Erdmann Neumeister, texts reinforce meaning of gospel, based on biblical, theological, & choral texts, Lutheran, Bach composed 58 a year, can have recit, aria, ariosos; ex: Nun Komm, der Heiden Heiland
Antonio Vivaldi
Italy’s best known composer of the early 18th c., virtuoso violinist, master teacher, composed opera, cantatas, sacred music, remembered for violin concertos (wrote about 500), established standard for violin concertos
violin concertos
standard est. by Vivaldi, 3 movement structure: fast 1st mvmt, middle mvmt slow in closely related key, fast final movement (often shorter or livelier than 1st)
Francois Couperin
career reflects changing patronage in France, wrote his ordres, organist to king, taught harpsichord to members of society, published his own music, ex: vingt-cinquieme ordre; wrote l’art de toucher le clavecin
Jean-Phillipe Rameau
Began as organist but became recognized as theorist at age 40, by 50 gained fame as composer, wrote Treatise on Harmony, best known for operas like Hippolyte et Aricie, compared to Lully
German, studied in Italy, worked in England as music director for King George I, combined musical styles to make own eclectic style, influenced by Scarlatti, worked for RAM, wrote many operas and oratorios,