Ars Nova
14th Century
A musical period that features duple and triple meter, hockets, isorhythm, and other complex musical devices; the height of Medieval complexity
Guillaume de Machaut
New musical notation differentiated duple vs. triple by using red and black ink.
Ars Nova Chanson
14th century
French, secular, monophonic of polyphonic vocal work using formes fixes
Ballade = AAB AAB or AAAB AAAB
Courtly Love Chanson
11th-13th centuries
Monophonic, secular, vocal, French, strophic, mildly melismatic
Songs relating to the code of love in the High Middle Ages between a Knight and unattainable upper-class woman.
Early Motet
Began in 13th century, popular in 14th
Polyphonic, polytextual secular (sometimes sacred) vocal piece, with a chant in the bottom voice (tenor)
Motets began as substitute clasulae with added text that were later performed as stand-alone pieces
Ars Nova Motet
14th Century
Polyphonic, secular vocal work with a chant in the bottom voice, featuring isorhythm.
Featured hockets, in which a melody is divided between 2 parts so that one voice sounds while the other rests or holds a note
Parallel Organum
9th-13th century
Polyphonic, Latin, non-metrical, sacred vocal work. Added a voice above soloist portions of responsorial chant.
Leonin, Perotin
Called “Parallel Organum” because the two voices often moved in parallel motion and perfect intervals.
Notre Dame Organum
11th-13th centuries
Polyphonic, Latin, sacred vocal work. Added one or more voices above soloist portions of responsorial chant. Upper voices used rhythmic modes.
Leonin, Perotin
Written in Free and Discant Organum. Free organum adds many notes to a syllabic or mildly melismatic chant, while discant organum adds only a few notes to melismatic portions of original chant.
6th-10th century
Latin, Sacred, monophonic, semi-musical recitation of sacred Christian liturgy. Non-metrical.
St. Augustine wrote famously about his love of sacred music, but also about his concern that it was too aesthetically pleasing
Also known as Gregorian chan, Plainsong, or Roman chant.
9th-13th century
Latin, Sacred, Monophonic vocal piece that adds text to existing melismatic chant.
Used pairs of verses set to the same music, creating an aa bb cc etc. form
High Middle Ages
An addition of notes, text, or other musical lines to an existing chant.
Hildegard, Leonin, Perotin
Tropes included sequences and organum. Without the addition of text, music, or additional voices to chant, other forms of music in the middle ages (like Organum and motets) wouldn’t have existed.